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History of Livingston County
from The History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri.  1886

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CHAPTER XIV.

GRAND RIVER TOWNSHIP.

Position and Description - Archaeology - First Settlers - Dates and Description of the first Land Entries - Items of Early History - The Town (?) of Astoria - Sketch of Grandville or "Coonville" - The Township in War Times - Historical Sketch of the Town of Bedford - Biographical Sketches of Many Old Settlers and Citizens.

POSITION AND DESCRIPTION

Grand River is the southeastern township of Livingston county. It comprises all of Congressional township 56, range 22, that portion of township 56, range 21, in this county, and that portion of township 57, range 22, within the county and lying south of the center of the track of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad. Next to Jackson it is the largest township in the county.

The greater portion of the township is rolling, not to say that it is rough and broken. The land along the west side of Grand river is bluffy in many places. Timber, stone and water are plenty. Numerous stone quarries have been opened and some coal mined. The best lands for agricultural purposes are in the central portion of the township.

ANCIENT MOUNDS.

In the northwestern part of the township, on se. sec. 31 - 57 - 22, are three or four large mounds, the work of that mysterious race, the ancient Mound' Builders. They belong to that class known to archaeologists as the sepulchral mounds, or burial places of the dead. Some five or six years ago one of these mounds was opened by W. H. Munro, J. R. Middleton and two or three other gentlemen. In a rudely constructed vault composed of loose stones, portions of a human skeleton, in a good state of preservation, were found, and some of these are now in the possession of the writer. No careful search was made for pottery or copper implements, often found in this class of mounds. Doubtless future and closer examinations will yield interesting and perhaps important results.

FIRST SETTLERS

Following is a list of the first actual settlers in what is now Grand River township, together with a description of the lands they settled upon, and the date when they entered the same: -

IN TOWNSHIP 56, RANGE 21

 
Name. Description. Date.
Rhodias Fewell se. sec. 7 Oct. 19, 1836
John Silvery w. sw. 7 Oct. 3, 1836
Alex. Silvery nw. w. sw. sec. 18 Nov. 15, 1836
Wm. C. Fewell ne. sw. sec. 18 Nov. 28, 1836
Reuben Leaton sw. sec. 20 and ne. sec. 29 Sept. 29, 1836
John Stucky e. nw. sec. 30 Sept. 7, 1837
John Stucky w. sw. sec. 30 Jan. 28, 1837
John Stucky e. sw. sec. 30 Aug. 30, 1839
Rueben Leaton sw. frac. sec. 28 Jan. 23, 1837
Joel H. Green nw. and sw. frac. sec. 33 Feb. 3, 1837

TOWNSHIP 56, RANGE 22.

 
Name Description Date
Joseph Wolfskill w. nw. w. sw. sec. 2 Aug. 7, 1838
Benj. A. Fewell e. sw. sec. 2 Aug. 24, 1838
John Wolfskill ne. sec. 3 n. of Gr. river Aug. 7 1838
Geo. Wolfskill Frac. ne. sec. 3 s. of Gr. river May 17, 1838
R. R. Mills s. frac. nw. see. 3 July 20, 1838
B. A Fewell se. se. sec. 3 Aug. 24, 1838
Anselm Rowley sw. se. sec. 3 July 11, 1838
Joseph Jones se. sw. sec. 3 July 19, 1838
Thos. Jones sw. sw. sec. 3, and ne. nw. sec. 10 July 11, 1838
Wm. Le Barron frac. ne. sec. 4 June 26, 1838
B. A. Fewell frac, ne. sec. 4 May 23, 1838
S. A. Alexander frac. nw. sec. 4 Nov. 13, 1837
Wm. LeBarron e. se. ne. sw. and sw. sw. sec. 4 June 26, 1838
B. A. Fewell w. se. sec. 4 June 2, 1838
B. D. Midgett nw. sw. sec. 4 Nov. 14, 1837
Collins Williams w. ne. and ne. ne. sec. 5 June 26, 1838
S. A. Alexander se. ne. and ne. se. sec. 5 Nov. 13, 1837
John A. Moore nw. se. sec. 5 July 31, 1838
J. K. Reddick e. sw. sec. 6 July 18, 1838
Geo. Munro w. ne. sec. 6 Mar. 1, 1837
W. P. Stovall nw. nw. and nw. sw. sec. 8 Mar. 14, 1837
R. R. Mills sw. sec. 9 July 20, 1838
J. G. Caldwell e. se. sec. 9 Oct. 21, 1839
Geo. Wolfskill w. sw. se. nw. & sw. ne. sec. 10 . 1838
John Wolfskill frac. ne. sec. 10, and frac. nw. sec. 11 Feb. 28, 1837
W. C. Wright frac. sw. and frac. se. sec. 11 May 13, 1837
Reuben Leaton frac. se. sec. 11 Feb. 21, 1837

 
  1. R. T. Mance
e. ne. sec. 11 Aug. 24, 1838
Cyrus Ballew sw. nw. sec. 12 Dec. 20, 1838
Alex. Silvey frac. sw. and frac. se. sec. 12 Dec. 8, 1836
John Silvey frae. ne. ne. nw. se. and w. ne. sec. 13 May 31, 1837
Amassas Silvey se. ne. sec 13 April 6, 1837
Alex. Silvey e. se. sec. 13 Nov. 15, 1836
Rhodias Fewell nw. sec. 13 Sept. 10, 1836
J.C. Ballew nw. sw. sec. 13 May 10, 1838
Abner Johnson e. ne. e. se. sec. 17 Sept. 4, 1839
Henry Duncan w. se. sec. 17 June 24, 1837
John Ringo n. nw. sec. 21 Mar. 1, 1837
Asa Lanter s. se. sec. 21 Jan. 6, 1837
Solomon Lewis w. sw. sec. 30 Mar. 23, 1838
Whitfield Dicken ne. and e. se. and nw. se.sec. 27 Nov. 15, 1836


 
Name. Description. Date.
Jeremiah Murray w. ne. sec. 26 May 25, 1838
Aquila Jones e. ne. sec. 26 Oct. 15, 1838
Wm. L. Brown e. nw. and nw. se.sec. 25 Mar. 25, 1839
Chris. Coats nw. sec. 31 April 9, 1838
Jas. A. Lewis w. sw. sec. 31 April 30, 1838
Elisha McGuire se. sw. sec. 32 May 14, 1838

TOWNSHIP 57 RANGE 22.

 
Name Description Date
Wm. LeBarron w. sw. sec. 33 June 26, 1838
Collins Williams se. se. sec. 30 Nov. 22, 1839
Geo. Munro ne. & ne. se. e. sw. & fr. nw. sec. 31 Feb. 24, 1837
Geo. Munro nw. frac. and nw. se. sec. 31 July 23, 1838
Harris Shaw w. sw. and nw. frac. sec. 31 Aug. 15, 1838
John Hall and W. P. Stone se. e. sw. frac. ne. sec. 31 Feb. 9, 1837
Jas. R. Reddick nw. and frac. ne. sec. 32 May 31, 1838

It will be observed that no entries have been noted after the year 1839.

EARLY HISTORICAL ITEMS

Upon the first settlement of the county it was the general belief that the Grand river was to become the highway to the markets of the world; railroads were scarcely known or understood. Navigation by water was common, and it was considered that in time the river would be employed for all the purposes of commercial transportation unnecessary for the general welfare of the people in this quarter. Therefore, at a very early date settlements were made as near the stream as possible, so that the settlers might be near shipping ports or a "river town," and so the large number of locations in this township at so early a date may be readily accounted for.

Perhaps Dr. John Wolfskill, who then lived in Carroll, was the first practicing physician in this township; he died here in 1877. Many anecdotes are related of his experiences among the pioneers. Some of these stories are rather broad and seemingly improbable. On one occasion, as the story is told, he was called to prescribe for a lady, who declared he was "the first doctor ever on the place." He left her some powders which he directed she should take "in water." The direction was literally obeyed. A barrel of water was procured into which the lady entered with many remonstrances and protestations, but with sublime obedience, and then she heroically took the potion. On learning the facts the doctor discontinued the treatment.

For many years after the first settlement the people procured such "store goods" as they needed at Carrollton and Brunswick. There was but little money and bartering and trading were resorted to as means of purchase.

When the first settlers came traces of the old French trading post at the mouth of Locust creek could still be seen. A few straggling, bands of Indians passed up and down the river from time to time, hunting and begging. They were the only tramps in the country at that period.

O. K. Smith, a New Yorker, was the first school teacher in the southeastern portion of the township, and taught in a small log cabin, with slab seats, about 1843. He was afterward a merchant in Grandville.

Perhaps the first steamboat to come up Grand river was the Bedford, in the year 1839 or 1840. On her return trip she was wrecked at the shoals of Grand river, and gave her name to the town at that point. Afterwards another boat was wrecked at Ballew's ford. She was taken out at high water, a dock was built, and she was repaired and remodeled and finally floated off. Years afterwards she was in the Missouri river trade. Jeremiah Jacob's was one of the workmen engaged in raising and repairing this boat.

Two other small stern-wheel boats plied up and down the river for a season or more prior to 1850. These were called trading boats, and had no passenger accommodations.

In early days there was a race track laid out in the prairie, in section 24, and the citizens held frequent " meetings" to test the speed of their horses. "Plug" racers and short distances were the rule, but the excitement was none the less intense, and the betting was free and spirited. Jim Turner, Howard Silvey and Harvey Low were noted patrons of the turf.

A certain methodist preacher was sent for to perform a marriage ceremony in this township many years ago. He was inexperienced and bashful, and desiring to perform his part properly resolved to use the marriage service contained in the book of discipline of his church. Arriving at the house where the ceremony was to be performed he found the bride and groom and the wedding guests assembled and in waiting. The preacher was shown to a private room, and hastily preparing his toilet he found that he had forgotten his discipline. Summoning a colored member of the household, he said: "Tell Mrs. to send me a discipline immediately." In a few minutes the servant came bearing a small burden carefully wrapped and concealed in a blanket, and handing it to the preacher said, with evident embarrassment: "Here's your dissipin, sir; it ain't got no handle, but it's all the one we've got!" The modest parson was so overwhelmed with confusion at the miscomprehension of his request that it was with great difficulty he was able to improvise a marriage service proper and perfect.

Prominent among the early settlers of this township was Hon. Geo. Munro, who, with John Munro, came from Cooper county in 1837 and settled on the well known "Munro farm," two miles west of Bedford. Renowned for his many good qualities of head and heart, no man is more pleasantly remembered by those who knew him. He represented the county three times in the Legislature, having been elected in 1854, 1856 and 1858. Dr. John Wolfskill, though not originally a citizen of the township, living across the line in Carroll, was very well and popularly known in the township, and his death, in August, 1877, was generally regretted.

ASTORIA.

The first town regularly laid out and platted in Livingston county, after its organization, was called "Astoria." Its founder was Henry H. Mitchell, of St. Louis, who laid out the town in March, 1837, having entered the land on the 6th of that month. He recorded his plat on the 12th of April following, fifteen days before the plat of Utica was filed, but some of the lots were sold April 3. Doubtless at the time Mr. Mitchell thought his town would one day become the metropolis of the Grand river valley.

Astoria was located on the west bank of Grand river, half a mile below the mouth of Locust creek (nw. section 20, township 56, range 12 ) and fairly in the midst of what was then considered the most important area of civilization in this quarter of Missouri. But whatever Mitchell's anticipations may have been, not a single house was ever built on the site of Astoria.

Boyd's Atlas sketch says that no houses were ever built at Astoria, but that, in 1868, "the site was changed to the mouth of Locust creek, where a town was laid out and called Grandville." The latter statement is incorrect. Grandville owed nothing of its existence to Astoria, but had a separate and distinct origin.

Mr. James Ruegger, of Chillicothe, has a copy of the original plat of Astoria. It is well executed in colors, denotes where banks, churches, public halls and other important buildings were expected to be, although portrayed as really existing, and exhibits quite a town on paper! Mr. Mitchell sold some lots in his projected town for $100 each. Among the first settlers in the vicinity were John Lehman, Isaac Dunney, John Eshelman and Fred. Hininger, who came up from St. Louis more than forty years ago.

GRANDVILLE

The town of Grandville was established about the year 1840; it was never regularly laid out and platted. Its site was near the mouth of Locust creek.

Mr. John Jacobs came to this township in 1842, and the little village was then in existence. Mr. Jacobs, still a resident of the township, relates that during its existence Grandville - or " Coonville " - as it was often called - had two stores, one by Smith & Fielding and one by Hurd. At one time there was a tobacco factory, owned and operated by Fielding & Holtzclaw. There was a dramshop run by two brothers named Parkinson.

The Parkinson Brothers at one time ran a steamboat called the Duroc up Grand river as far as Utica or the forks. The boat had a difficult job of getting back into the Missouri, owing to a sudden fall in Grand river. She grounded and was only extricated by tow cables and by a lucky rise in Locust creek.

As late as 1845 O. K. Smith owned a store in Grandville, and elections were held here about this time. The place generally bore a reputation for bad whisky, hard fights and disorders generally. On one occasion a man noted Bennett stabbed and killed another man named White. This occurred on a bluff bank of the river near the village. Being pursued immediately Bennett sprang into the river, presumably to escape by swimming across, but as he was never afterwards heard of, it is believed he was drowned.

On another occasion there was a colt show at " Coonville." Some contestants from Chariton county, prominent among whom were Tom Standley and two other men named Cranson and Snow, raised a row, because they did not win the premium and tried to "clean out" the successful Livingston county men. After a hard fought battle with fists and feet, involving much biting, scratching and gouging, the "east siders" were badly defeated and put to flight, The downfall of Grandville was occasioned by its unhealthy location. Some of its citizens, Fielding, Reddick, and others died. In 1849 there were two cases of cholera in the neighborhood. One man named Bradley died; another named Jones was attacked, but recovered. It was at this time that the contagion carried off many victims at Brunswick, Glasgow and other towns on the Missouri, and was prevalent in the West generally.

IN WAR TIMES.

During the Civil War this township suffered considerably at the hands of the lawless and unscrupulous of both parties. Between the Federal jayhawkers and the rebel bushwhackers there was a great deal of robbing and plundering.

John Bailey, whose murder by the militia in 1862 is mentioned elsewhere, was an old citizen of this township, and a man of good character. He was a strong partisan, however, and it is said offended more by his words than by his deeds. Mr. Wm. Barbee, of Carroll county, would have been killed at the same time had he not made the Masonic signal of distress, which was recognized by n lieutenant of the militia. who interfered and saved his life.

Jim Jackson, Jim Rider and other Confederate partisans made a few raids into the township, but those whom they visited wished that even these visits had been fewer.

THE TOWN OF BEDFORD.

The original site of the town of Bedford was first laid out and platted as the "town of Laborn," in 1837. According to the records its location was on the ne. of section 4, "a few rods below the shoals of Grand river." y whom the town was laid out can not now be stated.

The site was entered by a Wm. Le Barron, a Frenchman, of St. Louis, in 1888, and it is said that he laid off the town of Bedford the same year. It is certain, from the records, that the town of that name was platted in 1839, and it may have been surveyed before. Le Barron was here a short time and built a house. He died in St. Louis, whither he had gone to purchase the necessary machinery for putting in a water mill.

Although Bedford occupies the former site of Laborn, and though the original plat contains the same number of streets and blocks, yet it seems that Le Barron caused a new survey to be made, and had the town newly platted, as the records declare. The original plat of the "town of Bedford" is of the same size as the "town of Laborn."

As to the origin of the name of Bedford, there is some uncertainty. The common acceptation is that it was called for the steamboat of that game which was wrecked on the shoals at the site. But the Bedford did not ascend Grand river until 1840, while the town was laid out and named as early as 1839, according to the original record, still in existence. Indeed, there is some reason to believe that the town was surveyed in 1838.

It is almost impossible to obtain the correct details of the early history of Bedford. Daniel G. Saunders was probably the second merchant. A school was taught by John S. Bowles in 1840. Perhaps the first religious services were conducted by a Methodist minister, whose name is best remembered as Newbill, or Neuble. Henry H. Huffman was a merchant at a very early date; some believe he was the first.

The first ferry over Grand river was run by John Custer, and he was succeeded by Tyre Cauthorn, Phil Saunders and others. The only mode of crossing the river was by ferry until 1866, when the first bridge was erected. The disaster to this structure is elsewhere noted. The present bridge was completed in January last.

Bedford grew slowly until after the war. It was a well known point, but never a place of considerable importance, until after the building of the Wabash Railroad in 1871. In early days goods were brought to the place up the old wagon road from Brunswick save a few consignments landed by the steamboats.

The first mill - a slave mill - was built. by Alex. Davis, who sold to a Mr. Hicks, and the latter attached a grist mill. The fine water power at Bedford has never been properly utilized, and perhaps in this age of steam never will be.

During the war, in the fall of 1864, Jim Jackson and his band of a dozen bushwhackers entered the town from their lair over in Chariton county. The town was unprotected and entirely at their mercy. They robbed the store of Danl. G. Saunders, completely "cleaning out" the establishment. They also took two horses belonging to Union men and made diligent inquiry for Judge S. B. De Land, whom they swore to kill on sight. Mr. W. H. Vincent, then the village blacksmith, was made to shoe their horses, and received a castoff wornout horse for his pay; but after a time the Chillicothe militia took the animal from Mr. Vincent, claiming it as; "contraband."

The cyclone of 1880 was very destructive of property at Bedford. It destroyed the mill, tore down or badly damaged about fifteen other buildings, and swept out the center span of the bridge. And yet it is a matter of wonderment that the terrible storm did not do even more and worse damage.

The present leading business interests of the town are two stores, a steam saw mill, two tobacco factories, an implement store, two hotels and a chair factory. The public school belongs to district No. 5, township 56, range 22. There are two departments, and the average attendance in each during the last term was about twenty-five. The principal is J. T. Smith; assistant, Miss Letha Pine.

BEDFORD STATION,

On the Wabash Railroad, a little more than a mile north of the town of Bedford, was laid out December 1, 1870, by D. G. Saunders and others. In 1877 a horse railway connecting the town with the station was established by Ed. Austin and R. F. Davis; but it was discontinued in 1882.

M. E. CHURCH SOUTH.

The Bedford Methodist Episcopal Church South, was organized as early as the year 1852. Dr. Wolfskill and wife, S. A. Alexander and wife, Cyrus Ballew and wife, James A. Hix and wife, George Wolfskill and wife, Daniel Singleton and wife, Henry Duncan and wife, John and Mary Baily, Harriet Hoffman, Juda Ballew, Mrs. Laura Saunders, Mr. and Mrs. George Munro, were the original members. The pastors have been Revs. Devlin, Bell, Carter, Keran, Pyle, Leeper, Rose, Austin, Sarter, Carlyle, Rucker, Warren, Cope, Dockery, Rush, Anderson, Caples, Nolan, Penn, Jordan and Ashby. The present church building, a frame, was erected in 1875, at a cost of $2,300. It was injured somewhat in the cyclone of 1880. The church has a membership of about 70 and the Sabbath-school has 50. J. N. Mitchell is superintendent of the school.

MASONIC LODGE

The charter was granted to Alexander Lodge No. 385, A. F. and A. M., October 13, 1871. The charter members and first officers were: J. M. Alexander, master; Joseph Jones and D. H. Hammons, wardens; James Wright, secretary; G. W. Wright, treasurer; G. W. Wolfskill and I. S. Ballew, deacons; W. H. Jones, tyler; M. McDaniels, Daniel Root, B. B. Hoyden, B. F. Lucas, W. P. Dulaney, D. A. Creason, Daniel Singleton, D. A. Singleton and Jas. H. McKinney. The past masters have been J. M. Alexander, D. H. Hammons, W. P. Munro, W. H. Vincent, E. E. Wescott, J. R. Houx, A. L. Utt and C. E. Gates. The lodge formerly had a membership of about 70, but some of the members have been dimitted to form the Avalon and Hale City lodges. The present membership is 40.

BIOGRAPHICAL

ATHAN M. BALLEW

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Hale City).

Nowhere within the limits of Livingston county can there be found a man who takes greater interest in its agricultural and stock affairs than A. M. Ballew, or who strives continually to promote and advance these interest to a higher plane. He has a native pride in this county, for he was born here on September 4, 1844, and it is perhaps but natural that he should strive to see all its matters placed on a footing equal if not superior to the affairs of other counties in the State. Cyrus Ballew, his father, originally from North Carolina, was by occupation a tanner and farmer, following the latter calling at the time of his death in 1857; he was then some 64 years old. Athan's mother, before her marriage Miss Amy Sides, was a sister to Col. John Sides, of Confederate fame, the family being famous in the history of North Carolina; she died in 1881. The youngest of 8 children, Athan M. secured a fair common school education after which, at the early age of 13, he had to commence for himself, his father having died when the son was but a young child. His first occupation, splitting rails, was not very remunerative, and yet by practicing strict economy, and by working industriously he began to get ahead in life and in 1870 was enabled to purchase lands and stock. This he has since continued until at the present time he has 400 acres, adorned with an elegant residence and improved with fine barns, outbuildings, etc.; and it is with pardonable pride that he can now look back upon the results of his labors, for all his transactions have been carried on in a manner above reproach. Of stock he has fine Poland-China hogs and recently he has purchased a splendid Polled-Angus male animal, believing this grade of cattle the bests for general use in the section. His pastures afford splendid feeding and grazing ground, and everything about the place indicates enterprise and thrift. He is a member of the M. E. Church South and also belongs to the F. & M. Mutual Aid Society. Mr. Ballew was married October 27, 1867, to Miss Mary Olinger, of East Tennessee, daughter of a substantial farmer then of that locality, but now of Saline county, Mo.; her mother, Lucinda (McAmos) Olinger, died January 27, 1886. Mrs. Ballew was born August 13, 1846, the oldest child in the family. They have 7 children: George F., John C., Mary L., May Belle, Mattie, Ora and Charley T. Mrs. Ballew is a member of the Baptist Church.

J. H. BAUGH

(Merchant and Proprietor of Tobacco Factory, Bedford, Mo.)

Few native Missourians have better improved the meager advantages offered by the State in its infancy than J. H. Raugh. Born in Howard county, April 20, 1840, he spent his boyhood days in assisting with the duties of the home farm together with attendance at the public schools during the winter seasons. Thomas J. Baugh, his father, was a Kentuckian by birth, and a farmer by occupation, his death occurring in 1868 at the age of 50 years. Miss Elizabeth Green, the maiden name of his wife, was a native of Howard county, Mo., having been born there in 1818. She was 67 years old when she died in 1885. J. H. Baugh, the eldest of four children, began life as a teacher after discontinuing his schooling, but after one term he embarked in clerking for Daniel G. Saunders of Bedford. Three years later, in company with J. A. Grace, he started in business on his own account in the fall of 1865, and ever since that date he has been identified with the mercantile interests of Livingston county. In 1868 an addition was made to his other occupations of farming and stock dealing by starting a tobacco factory, the well-known reputation which the county enjoys as a tobacco center rendering his business a successful one. At his factory at this time he has twenty-five hands, fifteen being the average number of employees. Nine miles south of Bedford, in Carroll county, at the town of Hale City, Mr. Bough is conducting a large general store, which is meeting with the liberal patronage which he, as a man, deserves. In 1868 Mr. Bough was married to Miss F. V. Grace of West Virginia, daughter of Jacob Grace and wife, both natives of that State, both of whom are now deceased. Three children are now in their family: Blanche, Thomas W. and James H. Lillian Grace is deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Bough are members of the M. E. Church South of Bedford. The former belongs to the Masonic Order and has been secretary of the lodge for eleven consecutive years. He is an enterprising individual, and almost indespensable to his adopted town, for large numbers of its residents are benefited by his business. His productions will aggregate 15,000 pounds annually.

THOMAS CULBERTSON

(Farmer and Tobacco Grower, Bedford),

Thomas Culbertson is one among others in this county who are giving considerable attention to the tobacco business, in connection with agricultural pursuits. He was born in Morgan county, O., March 9, 1831, the son of Robert Culbertson, a native of Ireland, who came to America when 14 years of age. He was a wheelwright and farmer by trade and died in 1865 at the age of some 76 years. His wife was formerly Miss Esther McElroy, of Irish descent, her death occurring in 1851, in her forty-sixth year. Of their six children Thomas was the second. He was a student in the public schools of Ohio for but a single term of four months, though in later years by self-application and observation he has become well informed in general affairs. Beginning life as a former on his father's homestead, he remained there until 23 years old, then going to Grant county, Ind., where he bought a farm and attended to its cultivation for seven years. After a subsequent residence near Tolono, Champaign county, Ill., he came to this county in the fall of 1864, settled at the old Harriford ferry two years and in 1869 he purchased a portion of his present place, to which he has since made numerous additions from time to time until he now owns an excellent estate. He is quite interested in the raising of good grades of stock and, as remarked, is a large grower of tobacco. Mr. Culbertson is a married man, Miss Druzilla Bocock, a native of Ohio, having become his wife October 24, 1856. Her father, Lewis Bocock, a native of Ohio, but of Scotch-Irish ancestry, is still living in Indiana at the age of 76 years and during life has followed carpentering, cabinet-making and farming. Her mother is of about the same age and also survives; her maiden name was Miss Sarah Newland. Mr. and Mrs. Culbertson have 11 children living: Nancy J., Maggie, Robert G., Francis M., Thomas McClellan, Mary E., Joseph O., Lewis E., Lilly Olive, Martha May and Pearl. Five are deceased: James S., Grace D., Snowden, Rhesa and Maude. Mrs. C. is a member of the M. E. Church South, and her husband belongs to the U. P. Church. Their two eldest daughters are also connected with the M. E. Church. Mr. Culbertson is associated with the Bedford Lodge of the Knights of Labor.

GEORGE F. DAVIS

(Attorney at Law and Banker, Hale City).

In each of the ceilings in which he is now engaged Mr. Davis has displayed unusual energy and has been very successful. It was in 1880 that he had been admitted to the bar upon an examination before Judge Davis, and two years before this event he commenced the practice of his chosen profession; now he entered actively into the practice, locating at first at Bedford, where he remained 7 years. But the little city of Hale springing up and offering larger field and better inducements to young men of enterprise and ability he removed to that place in 1885, and has here succeeded in building up a lucrative and extensive clientele. In his financial operations also he has met with substantial results, and on account of his upright course in every transaction in life he has drawn around him a large and warm host of friends. Mr. Davis is a representative of a family not unknown to the people of this community. Elsewhere in this volume mention is made of Judge J. M. Davis, now judge of this judicial circuit, and by him George F. was principally learned in the law. He was born in Clark county, Ill., February 18, 1845, and when but about seven years old was brought out West by his father, Alexander Davis. His education was obtained in the States of Iowa and Missouri, and after leaving school he commenced for himself as a merchant, continuing to be thus occupied for eight or nine years. His talents and inclination led him into the channels of professional life, however, and turning almost . instinctively towards the law, he thoroughly prepared himself in that science, finally adopting it as his chosen profession. In 1869 Mr. Davis was married to Miss Melissa E. Dunfee, formerly of Ohio, but then of Chillicothe; her parents are both living, the father being a prosperous farmer in Kansas. Mr. and Mrs. Davis have had five children, only one of whom, Maude, is now living. Frankie, Fred, Harry and Edith are deceased. Mr. Davis and his estimable wife are members of the M. E. Church South at this place, and so also is their daughter.

MRS. ELIZA F. DeLAND

(Hale City).

The subject of this sketch was born in New York State, her father, Milo Kelsey, a celebrated lawyer of Chenango county, having removed to Delavan, Walworth county, Wis., when his daughter was a small child. He continued the practice of his profession there and with renowned success until his death in 1854, at the age of about 50 years. The mother of Miss Eliza was formerly Miss Lavina Madison (grand-niece of President Madison), also a native of the Empire State. At the time of her death in 1846 she was some 30 years old. Eliza, the second of four children, received an excellent education in the schools of Wisconsin, the advantages afforded by the district schools being supplemented by attendance at the Sheboygan Female Seminary, located in the city of that name, and the knowledge there gained has been of untold value to her in subsequent years. in 1854 she was married to Samuel B. DeLand, a capitalist of Wisconsin, and following their marriage they went to Charleston, S. C., where Mr. DeLand had a brother who was engaged in an extensive mercantile business. For some time they traveled in the South, visiting prominent cities and places of interest, then coming to this county and settling on the farm which Mrs. DeLand now occupies, - one of the largest landed estates in the county; this was in 1857. For five years before his death Mr. DeLand did a large and successful mercantile trade at Bedford, this county; he died in December, 1878. Something of his worth and the esteem in which he was held may be inferred when it is mentioned that he occupied various official positions of honor, among others those of representative and county judge. He was for years a member of Delavan Lodge of the Masonic Order, from which he never dimitted. In 1879 Mrs. DeLand rented out her property, visited the East and spent considerable time at Chillicothe, but recently, however, she has resumed the management of her farm, an estate superbly calculated for the growing of all classes of stock. It is her purpose to utilize it to its fullest extent and the immense pastures, finely grassed and with an unlimited supply of living water, are sufficient to guarantee the success of her intended experiment. Upon the place are good quarries and coal mines. Mrs. DeLand, while a lady of culture and refinement, is an excellent manager, alive to the issues of the day, and is now living amidst the luxuries, as well as comforts and necessities of life. In 1875 she joined the Methodist Church at Bedford, but now she is a Congregationalist.

BURNIS B. HAYDEN

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-once, Hale City).

It can not be expected in a work of this kind, where but brief biographical sketches of prominent citizens of the county are mentioned, that a lengthy, laudatory article should be written of each one; and yet at times there are met with some who have been so intimately and closely identified with the county in different capacities that it is only just to dwell upon what they have done and the influence of their careers upon others, not as empty words of praise, but the plain statement of a still plainer truth. Among such a class is Mr. Hayden. A native of Kentucky, he was born October 23, 1829, the only child born of the union of Jacob and Elizabeth Hayden, nee Wilson, the latter a Virginian by birth. Jacob Hayden came originally from Pennsylvania, settling near Louisville, Ky., in an early day, where his first marriage occurred, by which he had eight children. He was a farmer by occupation and also a blacksmith; he died in 1874 at the advanced age of 91 years, Burnis' mother having been 35 years old at the time of her death in 1830. Young Hayden grew up in a time when educational facilities were very different from those of the present day, and such schooling as he acquired was obtained by walking several miles to a subscription school. These advantages, however, were all the more appreciated on account of their meager nature. After leaving school he began life as a farmer in the Blue Grass State, a locality unexcelled as an agricultural community, and in about four years removed to Iowa, going thence four years later to Scotland county, Mo., where he farmed for five years during the Civil War. Upon the cessation of hostilities he came to Livingston county, settling on his present farm in 1866, and here he has since remained. An important characteristic of Mr. Hayden, and one that is often remarked, is his liberality and open-hearted, cordial, almost noble, Kentucky hospitality. It is a well known fact that he is liberal to a fault, and certainly no one is more ready to entertain friends, acquaintances and even strangers, than himself. His farming operations are conducted in a manner indicative of a progressive, thorough agriculturist; his stock is of a high grade, for long ago he found that it was poor economy to raise inferior animals. Energetic and public-spirited, he never fails to aid any movement which tends to benefit the county or his fellow-men. And he is warmly seconded in all his actions by his worthy wife, formerly Miss Elizabeth A. Wiseheart, of Kentucky, whom he married May 1, 1855. Her father, Conrad Wiseheart, died in 1870 at the ago of 77 years, having been preceded to the grave by his companion, Miss Amanda King originally, her death occurring September 14, 1846, in her forty-fourth year. Mrs. Hayden was the seventh of their 13 children and she was born December 29, 1830. Mr. and Mrs. H; have six children living: Sarah A., Amelia R., Alice A., Elizabeth S., Estella P. and D. F. Three are deceased: Mollie, Myrtie and an infant. Mr. Hayden was formerly a member of Alexander Lodge No. 385, A. F. and A. M., of Bedford, but is now limited from that to help in the organization of the Hale City Lodge. It should have been mentioned above that his father, Jacob Hayden, married in 1830 a third wife, Rebecca Tabor, by whom he raised a family of nine children.

JACOB R. HOUX

(Merchant and Farmer, Hale City).

In the business of merchandising Mr. Houx is second to no merchant in this portion of the county. There are but few residents of the State who have been a longer time within its limits or who have continuously been located in its boundaries, for it was in 1818 that his father, Frederick Houx, brought his wife, formerly Miss Margaret Ware, and family to the territory of Missouri, young Jacob being but four years old. The settlement was trade at Boonville in Cooper county. Frederick Houx gave his attention to farming during life; be was a native of Pennsylvania and at the time of his death, in 1870, was 80 years of age; his wife was also about the same age when she passed away in 1879, her birthplace having been at Hagerstown, Md. Twelve children comprised their family, of whom Jacob R. was the fifth. He was born December 21, 1814, and is already beyond the limited. age of three score years and ten. He began life as a tanner, a calling which he learned under his father's foreman, a Mr. Riggs, and upon leaving Cooper county he went first to Cole county, remaining there four years. When Moniteau was made a part of Cole county he continued to reside in the new county for 14 or 15 years, all this time resuming his trade of tanning. In 1854, he became permanently located in Livingston county, and from that time to 1870 he gave his attention to farming, but in the latter year he established a mercantile house at Bedford. This business he has since carried on, though at this time he is located at Hale City, just across the line in Carroll county. In connecting with his son, George, he conducts a large farm in this county, and the same success which has characterized his labors in other capacities has followed hire in this. His dealings in every transaction in life are above reproach, executed with conscientious honesty and fairness, and this can not fail in the end of substantial results. Unselfish in his nature, he does not profit at the cost of others, but in all things is liberal minded. Mr. Houx has been three times married: first, in 1836, to Miss Lucinda Simmons, of Kentucky, who died in 1851, leaving 7 children, 6 of whom survive. In 1852, a Mrs. Langley, formerly Miss Margaret Maupin, a native of Missouri, became his wife. She died in 1878, and two of the three children which she bore are now living. Mr. Houx's present wife's maiden name was Miss Martha Silvey, from Howard county, this State, her parents being amongst the first families in that county. Mr. H. is a member of the M. E. Church South at Bedford; his wife belongs to the Baptist Church. He also is connected with Alexander Lodge No. 385, A. F. and A. M

LAFAYETTE KING

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Bale City).

There is no better farm of its size in this community than the one which Mr. King own;, his home tract especially being a place superior to many. This contains 160 acres, upon which he raises the grains indigenous to this section, and with a good supply of timber and abundant water facilities it is well adapted to stock-raising; all his stock is of a high class. Mr. King was born in Boone county, Mo., May 16, 1835, of Kentucky parentage, for his parents, James and Keziah (Penick) King, were both natives of the Blue Grass State, coming to Boone county, Mo., in an early day. The former, after a lifetime devoted to agricultural pursuits, died in 1859 at the age of 63 years; his wife had preceded him to the grave in 1840, she then being some 40 years old. Nine children blessed their happy married life, of whom Lafayette, as the youngest, was perhaps the most favored one. At any rate he received a good education in Boone county, and, upon leaving school, began life as a farmer, having gone to California in 1854, working in Placer county, that State. After remaining there some five years he returned to Missouri and since that time he has adhered closely to farming and stock-raising, and with what success is very evident from a glance at his present possessions. He first came to Livingston county in the summer of 1858, but went back to Boone county a year later, not settling permanently in this county until the summer of 1860, and he has since resided upon his present farm. March 5, 1853, Mr. King was united in marriage with Miss Charlotte Cameron, daughter of Joshua Cameron, a Canadian by birth and of Scotch descent, but subsequently a citizen of Livingston county, and by occupation a farmer and blacksmith; he married Miss Sarah Garvin of this State, though of Kentucky ancestry. Mr. and Mrs. King have had seven children, five of whom are living: Lecroy, Robert, William, Marion and Nellie. Eugene and Minnie are deceased. Mrs. King died in 1875. Mr. K. was married again in 1881 to Miss Jane Street of Ohio. She is a member of the M. E. Church South, of Grace Church, in this township.

HENRY V. LEWIS

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Hale City)

Of the many thousands of brave young men who willingly offered themselves in defense of their country when in peril, Mr. Lewis was one, and the record which he made during his career as a soldier is such as can be referred to with pardonable pride. In 1862 he enlisted as second lieutenant in Co. E, 84th Illinois infantry, was attached to the 4th army corps, Army of the Cumberland, and participated in the battles of Stone River, Chicamauga, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge and the entire Atlanta campaign, and at the time of his discharge at the close of the war he was first lieutenant, having acted as captain during the entire war. Mr. Lewis is still less than 50 years of age, having been born in Adams county, Ill., April 2, 1839, the son of Giles S. Lewis, a native of Ohio and by avocation a farmer. When but a young man he went to Illinois; he still lives in Ashland, Neb., aged 76 years, and his wife also survives at 74 years, her maiden name having been Miss Sophronia Daniels, a Kentuckian by nativity. Henry V., the fourth of 12 children, was educated in his native State and after leaving school at once entered upon an agricultural career. His duties were broken into by the events of the war, and after this he continued to live in Illinois until 1867, when he settled upon his present farm. At once he commenced improving this place, then all raw prairie land, erecting a residence, necessary buildings, etc., until his homestead is now acknowledged to be one of the neat, comfortable places of the township. Most of his attention outside of the general conduct of the farm is given to stock growing, an industry in which he has acquired considerable success. His operations are conducted in a manner which indicates the progressive, enterprising agriculturist. Mr. L. has been twice married: first, October 17, 1861, to Miss Mary Price, of Adams comity, Ill., daughter of Andrew Price, a substantial farmer of that community; she was born June 2, 1842, and died February 27, 1872, leaving five children: Ettie, a teacher in the district schools; Maggie, Giles, Hattie and Mollie. February 27, 1873, Mr. L. married Miss Henrietta Bernard, whose father was J. O. Bernard, originally from the Blue Grass State, now a resident of Illinois. Mrs. Lewis' mother was formerly Miss Susan Harwell, of Tennessee birth: she is now 73 years of age. Mrs. L. was born July 14, 1843. She and her husband have had five children: Susie, Alpha, Georgia, Hallie and Carl. Mrs. Lewis is a member of the Hale City Baptist Church. He belongs to Alexander Lodge No. 385, A. F. and A. M., of Bedford.

DANIEL ROOT

(Farmer and Raiser of Fine Sheep, Post-office, Bedford).

That a lifetime spent in pursuing one occupation will in the end result in substantial success, where energy and perseverance are applied, can not for a moment be doubted, and such is found to be the case with Mr. Root, for, now closely approaching the age of 67 years, he has from boyhood given his attention to agricultural pursuits, in connection with the raising of stock in more recent years. He was brought up to this calling and first farmed with his father in the Blue Grass State, until 21 years of age, then coming to Missouri and settling in Livingston county. He remained here about ten years, and then went to Grundy county, but short time only was needed to show him his mistake that had been made in leaving this county. Accordingly he returned here, and this has been his home, his place being one of good improvements and under a high state of cultivation, such a homestead as Mr. Root, with his progressive ideas and advanced manners would be supposed to own. He grows fine sheep to some extent and has graded all of his stock to a, fair standard. Like many other citizens of this county, Mr., R. owes his nativity to Clay county, Ky., where he was born September 28, 1819, the sixth of eight children resulting from the union of John and Nancy Root (formerly a Miss Cox), the other a native of Maryland, and the mother a Virginian by birth; and died when about 68 years old. John Root was a farmer and cooper by occupation and lived to the age of 68 years. Daniel was favored with common advantages for acquiring an education in youth, after which as stated he began tilling the soil. September 8, 1843, his marriage to Miss Mary H. Hereford, originally from Chariton county, Mo., was consummated. Her father, Elisha Hereford, was long one of Livingston's prominent farmers and stock raisers, his death occurring in 1866, at the age of sixty-two years. Mrs. Root's mother was formerly Miss Fancy Crawford, of Scotch descent. Mr. and Mrs. R. have by this union six children living: Elisha H., William B., James G., George M., Alice and Mary E. Six are also deceased. Mr. Root and wife and one son and daughter, Elisha and Alice, are members of the Baptist Church. About eighteen years ago he joined Alexander Lodge No. 385, A.. F. and A. M., of Bedford.

CAPT. WILLIAM SMITH

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Hale City).

It was in the fall of 1865 that Capt. Smith first came to this county, his purchase of land at that time including 260 acres; but not until 1870 did he locate here permanently. To his original estate he has added from time to time until his present possessions embrace some 500 acres, land admirably adapted to the purpose for which it is used, general farming stock and culture. Believing in the merits of high grades of stock, he has excellent short-horn cattle and the finest of Poland-China hogs. The improvements upon the place are of a high order. Though a native of Livingston county, N. Y., born December 8, 1834, Capt. Smith was taken to Ohio when a small child by his father, Simeon Smith, there being reared as a farmer up to the age of 21, after which he learned the carpenter's trade. But this not proving congenial to his tastes he resumed his agricultural operations and has sincere carried on this calling. William's father, whose birth had also occurred in the Empire State, died there when some 75 years old; long before that his estimable companion had preceded him to the grave at the age of about 40 years. William was their only child, and as such received the most careful training in growing up. His home continued to be in Ohio until the fall of 1870, when, as above stated, he took up his residence in Livingston county, Mo. September 10, 1857, Capt. Smith's marriage to Miss Mary J. Platt, daughter of Thomas and Ann E. (Harbison) Platt, was consummated, his wife having been born in Ohio, in Coshocton county, February 1, 1837. Her father is still living in Ohio at the age of 74 years, a carpenter and cabinet-maker by trade, but her mother, who was born at Baltimore, Md., died in 1861, when 47 years old. Mrs. S. was the eldest of their ten children. To Capt. S. and wife have been born eight children, five of whom are living: Ella, Cora, Belle, Minnie and Mollie; and the three now deceased were Jennie, Willie and Edgar. Capt. Smith has long been associated with Alexander Lodge No. 385, A. F. and A. M., but at present he is helping in the formation of the Hale City Lodge. While in Ohio he was for a number of years superintendent of the Coshocton county infirmary, and since his residence in this county he has contributed liberally towards promoting and advancing all worthy movements of this community.

FRANCIS J. TURNER

(Farmer and Proprietor of Tobacco Factory, Bedford).

That the tobacco industry has become one of extensive proportions in this portion of Livingston county is very evident and to a few men is due largely the credit for its development and growth to a business of substantial dimensions. One of these is Mr. Turner, well and favorably known to the many residents of this community, and a brief outline of his life is accorded a worthy place in this volume. In 1874 he began putting up tobacco, having previously completed the large barn started by Daniel G. Saunders, Sr., and also added a stemming room; besides this be continued to pursue the occupation of farming and stock-raising, which he had followed prior to 1874. During the busy season he gave employment to some 30 hands in his factory and in the conduct of this business he is meeting with that success which deservedly attends industry, enterprise and progress. He has some splendid stock upon his farm, among which are to be seen fine Jersey Red hogs, which he believes to be the best for general raising. Mr. Turner is a Virginian by birth, having been born in Bedford county, of the Old Dominion, on March 17, 1833. John H. Turner, his father, a planter, a stock-raiser and extensive tobacco grower, was 56 years old when he died in 1863. His widow, however, still survives, at the age of 79. She was formerly a Miss Lucy C. Jeeter. Francis J., the second of 6 children, was an attendant of the subscription schools in his native county, his first entrance upon life's duties being in the capacity of deputy sheriff and constable, serving in these positions 4 years. Then he began farming and in 1868 came to his present location, buying out the interests of Mr. D. G. Saunders, above referred to. July 24, 1856, Mr. Turner was married to Miss Nancy E. Saunders, of Virginia, daughter of Thomas Saunders and Sabra Burnett. Eight children have blessed their happy married life; of these seven survive: Samuel G., married to Miss Laura Creason, and they have one child, Ernest; James T., John Milton, Annie S., Frank, Ray, Virgie and Ruth. Lucy, who is now deceased, was but a year old. Mr. T. is an esteemed resident of Livingston county.

WILLIAM M. WRIGHT

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Bedford).

Mr. Wright is recognized as a careful, energetic agriculturist of this community, and by his advanced ideas and progressive habits has done no little for the farming element hereabouts. Originally from Hocking county, Ohio, he was born July 20, 1838, the son of William and Mary (Myers) Wright, the former a Pennsylvanian by birth and of Irish descent, and the latter of German origin, and formerly from Ohio. The father at the time of his death, in 1875 (in Illinois), was 84 years old; the other died in 1879, aged 60 years. William M., the fifth of ten children in their family, was reared to a farm experience, obtaining such an education as the common schools of his adopted home, Indiana, afforded. Leaving the last named State when 18 years of age he located in Vermillion county, Ill., end there remained until about five years ago, when he came to this county. This has since been his place of residence, and he now occupies the place on which he first settled when moving to the county. On the 27th day of February, 1870, Mr. Wright was married to Miss Martha Jeannette, the fourth child of nine children of her parents' family. Ellsbury Jeannette, her father, was a substantial farmer of Illinois, and after reaching manhood married Miss Hannah Perkins, of Ohio nativity; he died at the age of 54 in 1867, his wife being 42 years old at her death. Mr. and Mrs. Wright have been blessed with eight children, six of whom survive: Albert U. S., Adrian E. Roman J., Luther R., Lilburn G. and Chloe M. Christopher C. and Daisy A. are deceased. Mrs. Wright is a member of the Friends' or Quaker Church. Mr. W. is a stock man to quite an extent, having some good graded stock.

CHARLES WURSTER

(Farmer and Banker, Hale City, Mo.)

This substantial and representative citizen was born in Beaver county, Pa., July 30, 1822, the third of six children resulting from the union of Jacob and Magdelina Wurster, nee Goehring, the former a native of Bavaria, Germany, and the latter originality from Alsace, then a French province but now in the possession of the German Empire. The father emigrated to this country about 1816 and settled in Pennsylvania, where he died, at the age of 89 years and 6 months, in 1873. Charles' mother came to America in 1811, and survived until 1869, when she died, being some 84 years old. Young Charles in his boyhood days attended the common schools of Pennsylvania for about nine months, and yet, with this limited education, he has by subsequent study and observation gained such excellent knowledge that no one would imagine at this time that he enjoyed other than the most liberal educational opportunities. When 19 years old he entered actively upon life's duties as a farmer, and after continuing this occupation some time he began to learn the carpenter's trade. This, however, he never finished, but abandoning it he resumed agricultural labor and to the present day he has devoted himself to tilling the soil. His success in this direction was long ago recognized, end his natural characteristics of energy, perseverance and ceaseless efforts have proven invaluable to him in his career. In the spring of 1857 he located from Pennsylvania in Macon county, Ill., near Decatur, where he remained for nearly ten years. In 1867 he again moved, Madison county, la., becoming his place of residence, and of that locality he was a citizen for three years, lacking a day. About this time he settled on a farm in this county, which be had purchased in the spring of 1865, and his home has since been in this vicinity. A supporter of fine graded stock, he has purchased several excellent animals for breeding purposes, his place being well fitted for general stock purposes. And in addition to his farming interests he is connected with the Bank of Hale, located in Hale City, an institution of established financial standing, and one that is a credit to the place. Mr. Wurster, while formerly connected with the Masonic Order at Bedford, is now interested with others in establishing a lodge at Hale City. His wife is a member of the Christian Church. She was formerly Clarissa A. Reynolds, daughter of William Reynolds and Sarah Reynolds, nee Woolsey, and the sixth of twelve children. Her father, originally from Tennessee, was one of Livingston county's oldest settlers, and at the time of his death in 1862 was 57 years old, the mother being about the same age when she died in 1866. This marriage was consummated October 4, 1882. Mr. W. has been previously married March 30, 1848, to Miss Fannie Fombelle of Beaver county, Pa., who died January 17, 1877, little past the age of 54 years. She left five children: Alexander J., the oldest son, is now living near Topeka, Kan.; Charles A. resided in Carroll county, Mo., and died April 1, 1885; Gabriel lives on a farm adjoining his father's; Joseph H. died December 28, 1862, while living in Macon county, Ill.; Daniel G. died May 22, 1869, while living in Madison county, Iowa.

HON. THOMAS F. SCOTT

(Farmer and County Judge, Section 30, Post-office, Avalon).

Judge Scott, for nearly thirty years a resident of this county, one of Grand River township's influential and highly respected citizens, and a man of good education and natural ability - is deserving of a more extended mention than the limits of this work will permit. His life has not been without thrilling adventure or self-denying experiences, yet success has attended him both in material affairs and in the esteem which has been accorded him by those among whom he has so long made his home. Judge Scott was born in Jefferson county, O., November 3, 1833. James Scott, his father, was a native of the same locality and grew up there as a farmer and merchant, subsequently marrying Miss Jane Mansfield, of the same county as himself. She died in 1857, leaving six children: William, Thomas F., Francis M., Susannah, who married James Preston; Mary J., now Mrs. James Van Zant, and John W. Young Thomas accompanied the father to Chariton county, Mo,, in 1842, and afterwards went to Burlington, la., in 1844, going thence to Galena, Ill., where he lived for some time. Following this for three years he worked in the lead mines of Wisconsin, but in 1849 returned to Ohio. In 1850 the senior Scott and his son, Thomas F., took a trip to California, where they were engaged in working in the mines with favorable results for three years. In 1853 they took passage for Australia, but twice while on the voyage the vessel on which they were passengers came near being wrecked. Finally their point of destination was reached and seven months were spent, in that country, after which they returned home to Ohio. In a short time they went to Wapello county, Ia., remained two years, and in 1857 came to Livingston county, settling in Grand River township. This has since been the Judge's home. The father was married a second time, in 1861, to Mrs. Ann Warden, whose maiden name was Wilson; she died in 1884, and on the 28th of May of the next year James Scott also yielded up his spirit to its Maker. Mr. Thomas Scott's marriage occurred on the same day that his father's second nuptials were celebrated, Miss Amanda Stone becoming his wife; and it is a fact of interest that father and son, with their wives, ever afterwards lived in the same house and in the most harmonious manner, thus refuting the common idea that no house is large enough for two families. Not often in the present day is seen such devotion between father and son as always existed between James and Thomas Scott, and the latter surely has no reason to regret the noble duty which he so faithfully performed in for his father. In 1884 Mr. Scott's personal popularity, combined with his natural qualifications for office, led him to be elected county judge, and in this position he is now serving. He owns 205 acres of land in this township, and one-half interest in the "Jonathan Stone Farm" of 440 acres. The Judge and wife have four children: W. Edgar, Ida B., Effie M. and William Jewell.

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