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History of Livingston County
from The History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri.  1886

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CHAPTER XXII.

BLUE MOUND TOWNSHIP.


Position and Description - Early History - First Land Entries - Items - The Cyclone of 1883 - County Churches - General Historical and Descriptive Sketch of the Town of Dawn - Presbyterian Church - Secret Orders, Etc. - Biographical.

POSITION AND DESCRIPTION

Blue Mound township comprises all of Congressional township 56, range 24, that portion of township 57, range 24, lying south of Shoal Creek, and a tract of about 600 acres lying in the angle between Clear creek and Shoal creek.

Mound is one of the best townships of land in Missouri, taken as a whole. Along Shoal creek is some low swampy land, subject to occasional overflows, but it affords rich and luxuriant pasturage in the summer and fall, and is of great value in that particular. Hundreds of cattle are annually raised in and shipped from this township, and grazing lands are necessary. The uplands in the northern, eastern, and southeastern portions are the most fertile in the county. It is acknowledged that the country between Dawn and Avalon, on the north of Blue Mound, and on the Mound, is one of the richest and most productive tracts in this portion of Missouri.

The greater portion of the township is settled by Welshmen and their descendants, and people from the Northern and Eastern States, thrifty, intelligent and enterprising. It seems strange in the present condition of affairs that the first settlers of the county, who had the whole county to choose from, should have passed by the beautiful prairie lands in this township and selected homes for themselves among the heavily timbered lands, where the soil was inferior even after it had been made ready for cultivation. But it was left for the "Yankees" to make the most of the best natural advantages. It seems to have been, and in some cases yet to be, the disposition of Southerners to follow in the old ways and beaten paths of their ancestors - to "do as daddy did," and so they settled in the heavy timber, because that was the kind of location he made in Kentucky or Tennessee; while the Northerners are constantly investigating and experimenting, discarding old ways and trying new ones. Coming chiefly from old timbered localities they chose from preference the wild prairies of Missouri and the West and had them under cultivation in one-fourth of the time required to subdue the old timbered lands first settled.

Sometimes the explanation is made that upon the first settlement of the country there were no plows in vogue sufficiently strong to cut, break and turn the tough stubborn sod of the prairies; and that the soil in the timbered lands, when the ground had been cleared and grubbed, was soft and mellow, and often needed but little ploughing. This is true; but why were the timbered tracts preferred twenty years after the first settlements? Much of the prairie land in this county was not entered until after the year 1850, long after stout, strong "prairie breakers " had come in use, and some settlements had been made on the prairies and the value of their soil fully demonstrated.

Shoal creek, which runs through Blue Mound township, and forms a part of the northern boundary, rises in the southeast portion of Clinton county, and empties into Grand river at the northeast corner of this township in the nw. section 19-57-23. Brush creek and Clear creek are the other leading streams of this township.

EARLY HISTORY.

Settlements were made in this township as early as in 1835. The land came into market the following year when the first entries were made. Prior to the year 1840, entries were made by the following actual settlers in what is now Blue Mound township: -


IN TOWNSHIP 56, RANGE 24
Name Description Date
Jacob Stauffer sw. se. sec. 4 May 4, 1839
Henry Walker sw. sec. 4 May 4, 1839
Henry Walker se. sec. 5 May 4, 1839
Wm. McCarty se. nw. & ne. sw. sec. 7 July 8, 1837
Wm. McCarty w. sw.sec.8 June 14, 1837
Alfred Reeves ne. sec. 13 April 18, 1839
Nathan McCarty nw. nw. sec. 17 Sept. 7, 1837
Wm. Mann, Josiah Whitney & B. F. Baker nw. sec. 18 Sept. 16, 1836
Josiah Whitney sw. nw. sec. 18. Sept. 16, 1836
B. F. Baker nw. sw. sec. 18 Sept. 16, 1836
Jesse Reeves ne. sec. 25 Oct. 25, 1839
Joseph Knox nw. sec. 25 April 13, 1839
Orlando H. Clifford sw. se. sec. 25 Oct. 25, 1839
M. S. Reeves ne. sec. 26 April 13, 1839
Elijah Preston w. se. sec. 27 . Aug. 3, 1838
TOWNSHIP 56, RANGE 25

Wm. F. Whitney

se. ne. sec. 24

April 27, 1839
TOWNSHIP 57, RANGE 24.


Harvey White

e. se. sec.27 .

Sept. 27, 1838

 

Mann, Whitney and Baker were prominently known throughout the county. Mr. Mann was captain of a militia company and a leading citizen; Josiah Whitney was a Yankee and the well known operator of the mill which bore his name; Baker was a prominent citizen.

In 1838, during the Mormon War, Mr. Mann's company of militia was stationed at Whitney's mill and operated throughout the surrounding country to prevent any further emigration into Caldwell county. Some of the company were at Haun's Mill.

The township was first organized and called Blue Mound in August, 1843. The first election was held at John Green's. At first the area was larger than at present, but by the creation of Fairview and the changes in other townships it has been reduced to the limits heretofore described. It took its name from the great elevated plateau or mound, which, at a distance outlined against the horizon, resembles a mammoth pile of cerulean.

THE CYCLONE OF JUNE, 1883

The most notable event in the history of Blue Mound township since its organization was the visit of a cyclone on the night of June 20, 1883. Happily the appearance of the storm had been threatened for some hours, and many persons had left their houses and taken refuge in cellars when it broke upon them; otherwise many persons would have lost their lives that escaped. As it was only four persons were killed and about twenty-five wounded, or badly injured.

The cyclone seemed to originate east of Catawba, in Caldwell county. It entered Livingston near the southwest corner of the county at about 9: 30 at night, going due east, and rose or lifted in the southeast corner of this township (sec. 36-56-24) a few minutes later, having traveled with frightful velocity. Its track varied from one-third to half a mile in width, and was swept clean of buildings, fences, etc. At Charles Glick's, eight miles from the point of entrance into the county, it veered to the northward a little, but soon dropped back to its former track and passed on; and at last, after thoroughly destroying Blue Mound post-office, which at that time was the residence of Charles McAlear, it went east to the northwest corner of section 36, then turned southeast, swept away the building on the farm of J. C. Mead, and then rose.

During its progress through this township it killed four persons: Edward D. James, Mrs. John Glick and Jack Wilson and wife. Those most severely wounded were John Glick and child, Jack Wilson's child, William Banett and wife and three children, Mrs. J. B. Dusenbury, Jack and Susie Dusenbury, William Pugh, John E. Hughes and his wife and child, William J. Hughes and wife, Mrs. Cunningham, Bert Snyder, Rev. Robert Evans, a son of Morris Davis, Mrs. Morgan Hughes, M. J. Williams, of Utica.

The total number of dwelling-houses destroyed was 37; the number of buildings worth more than $100 each destroyed was 72; number injured, not counted; there were 141 head of stock killed. Some of the houses blown away were fine large mansions, well furnished, and the abodes of people of refinement and intelligence. Henry Glick's, in the southwest section of the township, was one of these and was the first destroyed. The Hosier school-house was badly injured. A fair appraisement of the property destroyed showed its value to be $54,150. There was about $2,000 collected and expended for the relief of the needy and destitute victims of the storm.

COUNTRY CHURCHES

Welsh Congregational Church. - This church was organized February 14, 1868, at the Dawn school-house, by the Rev. Thomas Pugh. Daniel Williams and wife, L. D. Jones and wife, Joshua Williams, D. P. Williams and wife, Thomas Pugh and wife, Sophia Davis, John W. Thomas, Robert R. Roberts, John J. Davis, John H. Davis, David D. Owens, Thomas H. Lewis and David Lewis were the first members. In 1869 the present church building, a frame, was constructed at a cost of $1,000. The pastors have been Revs. Thomas Pugh, Thomas W. Davis, Hugh X. Hughes, M. E. Davis and Griffith Roberts. The present membership is about sixty. The Sabbath-school has a membership of 50. The present superintendent of the school is John E. Harper. The church building stands on the sw. , nw. , section 16-56-24.

Mount Hope Christian Church - Was organized in the fall of 1884, with the following members: J. R. Davis and wife, R. L. Knox and wife, H. M. Knox and wife, John Burton and wife, Wm. Shields and wife, Wm. Marker and wife, Porter Minnis and wife, P. Knox and wife, B. F. Knox and wife, George Carr and wife, John Sullivan and wife and Susan Knox. Rev. Robert Knox has ministered to the spiritual needs of the church ever since it's organization. At a cost of $800 a neat frame church building was erected in 1885. The present number of members is 60. The Sabbath-school has about thirty scholars. H. N. Knox is superintendent of the school. The church building is located on section 35-56-24.

The Welsh Calvinistic Methodist (or Presbyterian) Church - Located two miles southeast of Dawn, was organized March 8, 1881. The original members were: William Griffiths, Mrs. W. Griffiths, Joshua Williams, David D. Owens, Daniel J. Davis, Elizabeth Davis, Thomas J. Powell, Jane Powell, David P. Williams, Mrs. J. Williams, Thomas Griffiths, Isaac Jones, Samuel Jones, Mrs. Jones, J. D. Evans, Catharine Evans, David Hughes, Catharine Hughes and D. O. Hughes. The present membership is 40. The names of the pastors are: Richard Davies, R. O. Williams, R. W. Hughes, John Williams, Robert Evans and Hugh X. Hughes. The last named has been pastor since 1881. The church, which is a frame building, was erected in 1872 at a cost of $800. The Sabbath-school membership is about forty-five, with Thomas Griffiths as superintendent. The church was originally built about, a mile northeast of the present location, but was moved and in 1881 an addition built to it.

Welsh Baptist Church. - This church was organized August 15, 1868, by Rev. D. V. Thomas, of Rulo, Neb. The first sermon in Welsh delivered in the Dawn settlement was at the house of Thomas Lewis, by Rev. Hugh O. Rowland, the text being from Psalms xxxii: 6. There were about sixteen persons present. The original members were Thos. Lewis, Mary Lewis, James Reese, Jemima Reese, John Williams, Mary Williams, W. R. Jones, R. P. Jones, Eleanor Jones, Elizabeth Jones, T. J. Jones, Ann Jones, Wm. Jones, D. W. Lewis, Ann Lewis, Margaret Roberts, Thos. Jones, Thos. Morgan and Mary Davis. The pastors have been Rev. James Reese, Jonathan M. Jones, Samuel Thomas and R. M. Richardson. The present church building is located on section 21, and was built in 1876, at a cost of $700. The present membership is 85. The Sabbath-school has about 50 pupils, Joseph A. Lewis being the superintendent. Both church and Sabbath-school are in a prosperous condition.

THE TOWN OF DAWN

The origin of the town of Dawn was the old institution on Shoal creek known as Whitney's Mill, which was built by Josiah Whitney in the year 1837, and was a noted establishment in early days. The first public bridge in the county was thrown across Shoal creek at this point in the winter of 1841, and built by Col. Sarshel Woods, of Carroll county. Somebody had a little store here in the 40's, but the place was generally known as Whitney's Mill, until in March, 1853, when Wm. Hixon, the then owner of the site, laid out a town, which he called Dawn.

There was not much of a settlement here until after the close of the Civil War, when the Welshmen and the Northmen came in and built up not only the town but the township. To the Yankees and the Welsh, therefore, the town of Dawn and the township of Blue Mound are largely indebted for their present high state of development. Jonathan and they can accomplish wonders when they form a partnership and set to work to improve a country.

It was not long after the war until the village assumed a smart business-like appearance. The surrounding country was fast being improved and developed, and the town kept pace with it. Hugh Jones, a native of Wales, came down from Iowa in 1867, and was afterward a prominent merchant. R. L. Patrick, a native Missourian, was another merchant. H. Bushnell, a New Yorker, came to the county in 1866, and was years ago a leading merchant, and is still in business, a man of influence, liberality, great enterprise and public spirit. D. D. Temple, a Pennsylvanian, came in 1868, and was the first lawyer. Dr. F. M. Dusenberry, a native of Virginia, located here in 1871.

In 1880 the leading business men were H. Bushnell, general merchant; W. A. Fisher, H. G. Barker, and R. L. Patrick, druggists; Hugh Jones, postmaster and dealer in groceries, etc.; W. T. Bramel, tinner and stove dealer; Michael Nailor, proprietor of the woolen mill and grist mill; J. M. Shields, wagon maker; J. W. Hood and G. W. Fisk, blacksmiths; T. H. B. Schooling, physician, and S. M. Green, attorney at law and notary public. The Presbyterian Church was built in 1872. Prior to this religious services were held in the schoolhouse.

In January, 1883, a newspaper, the Dawn Clipper, was started, and is still running. It is well printed, devoted chiefly to local news and interests, and is neutral or independent in politics. Its form and size is a six-column folio. Frank T. Brooks is editor and proprietor.

As an incident of present interest it may be well to state in this connection that the certainty of the building of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad is regarded as of great effect upon the future prospects of Dawn. The road is located and a depot contemplated more than a mile from the town, a matter of regret and disappointment to the citizens of course. But notwithstanding this fact, the people have been earnestly in favor of and worked hard to secure the building of the road.

From the first they came forward, laying aside selfish considerations, and subscribed liberally to further the enterprise. They subscribed over $2,600, and dually two of the business men, H. Bushnell and W. A. Fisher, guaranteed in writing the payment of all the subscriptions, making them entirely elective and valid. The effect of the building of the road can not be other than beneficial, and it is well to remember and put upon record the names of those who favored and nicked the enterprise and assisted in making it certain.

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH

The Cumberland Presbyterian was the first church organization at Dawn. It was organized in 1864, by Rev. Wm. Reed. The first members were Abraham Brown and wife, John Reed and wife, Dr. Rice and wife, Thos. Tressell and wife, Dr. Shields and wife, Wyley Elliott and wife, Mary M. and Minerva A. Brown, and Mrs. McClanahan. Some of the pastors have been Revs. William Reed, _______ Baird, James Reed and John Hawkes. A frame church building was erected in 1872, which cost $2,500. Before the church was built preaching and Sabbath-school were held in the Dawn school-house. The present membership of the church is 31. The Sabbath-school was organized in 1862, with Abraham Brown as superintendent. It has always been a union school. There are at this writing about 75 Sabbath-school scholars. E. J. James is present superintendent of the school. Though owned by the Presbyterians, the church building is used by the Baptists and Methodists.

SECRET ORDERS

United Workmen.- Dawn Lodge, No. 213, A. O. U. W., was instituted by Dr. T. R. Dice. The dispensation was issued February 1, 1881. The charter members and first officers were T. E. Graham, P. M.; W. E. Musser, M. W.; J. C. Blackson, financier; H. Brown, overseer; S. K. Able, foreman; S. M. Green, recorder; R. Weatherby, receiver; T. E. Armstrong, guide; T. J. Powell and John Nelson, watchman. The present membership is 30.

Odd Fellows.- Dawn Lodge No. 345, I. O. O. F. was instituted December 11, 1875, by C. H. Mansur and others from Chillicothe Lodge No. 91. The charter of the lodge bears date of May 19, 1886. The charter members were R. L. Patrick, Hugh Jones, Hugh Tudor, W. J. Cramner, W. J. Edwards and T. E. Jenkins. The first officers were: R, L. Patrick, N. G.; Hugh Jones, V. G.; Elmer Dusenberry, secretary; C. B. Reed, treasurer. The present membership is 50. They own their lodge room and the order at Dawn is in a prosperous condition.

Grand Army of the Republic. - General Wadsworth Post No. 50, G. A. R., of Dawn, was instituted by Dept. Commander Alvin P. Pease, the charter bearing date March 1st, 1883.

The charter members were Henry Bushnell, Joseph Heslop, James D. Blackson, Otis Spaulding, Wm. Spaulding, John E. Brown, F. A. Snyder, James D. Graham, Frank Green, Solomon Bombarger, B. A. Turner, M. B. V. Culver, T. J. Owens, M. C. Malone, David Shaffer, Donaldson Day, C. S. Smith, Robert Reed, John Collar, John Brooks, J. J. Nellis, John W. Lesley, George O. Goff; Jas. A. Snodgrass, Granville Hall, George A. Johnson, Wm. Heare, John R. Fludder, Evan D. Johnson, James H. Snyder, S. B. Rudolph, Jno. A. Williams, James Bench, William H. Mattingly, Daniel R. Johnson, John P. Mead and Hugh Tudor. The first officers were: Henry Bushnell, commander; William Heare, second vice-commander; James D. Blackson, junior vice; Donaldson Day, quarter master; John E. Brown, surgeon; Jno. D. Graham, chaplain; Frank Green, officer of the day; Charles S. Smith, officer of the guard; John Collar, adjutant; Joseph Heslop, quartermaster-sergeant and David Shaffer, sergeant-major. The present officers are the same, except Joseph Heslop, junior vice; L. E. Tracy, surgeon, Thos. J. Owens, chaplain; F. A. Snyder, officer of the day; Robt. Reed, quartermaster-sergeant; Edwin Musson, sergeant-major.

The post meets at Bushnell's Hall, and the present membership is 67. The name of the Post was suggested by Henry Bushnell and was named in honor of Gen. J. S. Wadsworth, a gallant citizen-soldier in the war of the Rebellion, from western New York.

He was a man of means, and on two occasions during the war he out of his private means paid the brigade he commanded, the government afterwards reimbursing him.

He was killed in action at the battle of the Wilderness in May, 1864. He would never accept any pay for his services to the Government, and was one of our greatest soldiers. The G. A. R. Post at Dawn is one of the largest and most flourishing in Northern Missouri.

BIOGRAPHICAL

WASHINGTON T. BRAMEL

(Manufacturer of Tinware, Dawn)

A glance at the ancestry of Mr. Bramel shows that for several generations past the family have been natives of the Old Dominion. His parents were both born in Virginia, William R. and Nancy Bramel (whose maiden name was Arrington). The former moved with his family to Wood county, W. Va. in 1828, and from there in 1832 to St. Louis county, Mo., making the trip by way of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. After a few months' residence near St. Louis they located in Franklin county, improved a farm and there passed the remainder of their lives. They reared a family of four sons and two daughters, were hard-working, kind-hearted people, and enjoyed the confidence of all who knew them. Washington T. was born in Prince William county, Va., November 27, 1819. He was early made acquainted with the details of farm life, his educational opportunities being only such as the schools of that early day afforded, and when about 20 years old he was married to Miss Martha F. Butts, also a Virginian by birth. Until 1847 he made his home in Franklin county, whither he had accompanied the family years before, and then came to Livingston county, where Mr. Bramel engaged in saw and grist milling (at Utica), this being the first steam mill ever erected and operated in now what constitutes this county. In 1850 he rented his mill and was drawn to the newly discovered gold fields of California, where he remained three years with fair success. Upon returning to Utica he again took charge of his mill, operated it some two years, and, selling out, embarked in mercantile, pursuits with Mr. John Harper, at Utica. In this he continued until the outbreak of the rebellion, when the partnership was dissolved and Mr. B. opened out a stove and tinware establishment, conducting it until 1875. In that year he came to Dawn and has since resided here, engaged in the manufacture of tinware, a business which has prospered under his careful management and perseverance, and which has placed him prominently among the leading business men of this place. To himself and wife have been given the following family of children: William F., Thomas E., and James D., only one of whom is now living, Thomas, and he is married and resides in Oregon. Mr. Bramel is a member of the Baptist Church and also belongs to the Masonic fraternity. He has never aspired to any political preferment, though always having supported the Whig or Democratic parties.

JOHN BROOKS

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Dawn).

The parents of the subject of this sketch, Michael and Mary (Cryle) Brooks, were natives of the Keystone State, where their ancestors for many generations had resided. They were married in Pennsylvania in 1830, and shortly afterwards moved to Ohio, settling in Richland county, where Mrs. Brooks died in 1848, leaving three sons and one daughter. In 1850 Mr. Brooks went to California, the children having been taken care of by an aunt, and while in that State he was married again; subsequently his death occurred there in 1876. John Brooks, the youngest but two in his parents' family of children, first saw the light in Richland county, O., in 1840, and at the time his father went to California he was but eight years old. It was not long until he had to rely entirely upon his own exertions for support, and without scarcely any education and unacquainted with the ways of the world, he found it most difficult to secure a livelihood. But his ambition knew no bounds and he attended strictly to the employment that was given him until the war broke out. In 1861 he enlisted in the 3d Iowa infantry at West Union, Ia., and served with distinction for about a year. In 1864 he was married, Miss Elmina Cross becoming his wife; she was born in Richland county, O., in 1848, and was the daughter of Aaron Cross, who came originally in an early day from Belfast, Me., to Ohio, where he afterwards married Rebecca Oldfield, whose father Jonathan Oldfield, was a pioneer settler of the Buckeye State, and who served in the War of 1812. In the fall of 1865, Mr. Brooks and wife took up their location at their present residence, a comfortable homelike place, where they are now living, surrounded by their worthy family of children. Personally they are well known and favorably recognized. All the children but the youngest one are living: Frank T. Mary L., Elvira B. and Martha Elizabeth. Frank T. Brooks, the eldest of the children, was reared upon his father's farm, obtaining a good education at the "Stone School-house " in this county. And also attended an educational institution at Vineland, N. J. While in that city he became connected with the newspaper business, at which he worked some two years, then returning to his home in Dawn. He soon purchased the Star, which had been established as the Dawn Clipper in 1882, by Dr. B. O. Webb and Frank Green. Soon after the journal started, Dr. Webb disposed of his interest to Mr Green, who died shortly afterwards and the paper fell into the hands of P. R. Hoy, who conducted it as the Star until August, 1884. Mr. Brooks then became the proprietor and editor of the paper, which he restored to its original title, the name under which it has since been published. Under the management of Mr. Brooks this periodical has proved a decided success, and its editorial policy has been directed by a man of good judgment. Its reputation as a representative journal of this portion of the State is well established.

ABRAHAM BROWN, Sr.

(Retired Farmer, Dawn)

Like many and perhaps the most of the representative citizens of Livingston county, Mr. Brown descends from Virginia, ancestry, his birth having occurred February 1, 1816, in Monongalia county, (now) West Virginia. His father, Emanuel Brown, was twice married, his first wife, Elizabeth Henkins, bearing him eight children, of whom Abraham was the eldest. Miss Nancy Stewart was the maiden name of his second wife and she became the mother of two children. In 1826 he moved from his native state to Washington county, Pa., and from there to Champaign county, O., in 1848, later removing to Marshall county, Ill.; he died in Christian county, Ill., at an advanced age. Abraham in growing up, early learned what hard work meant. His education was rather limited, but he remained with his parents until some twenty years of age, assisting about the farm in a saw and grist mill, and in 1835 he was married in Washington county, Pa., to Elizabeth Blayney, originally from Ohio. Thirteen years later moving to Morrow county, O., he remained there occupied in farming until 1859, when he came to this county, and this has since been his home. His first wife died in Ohio in 1851, leaving the following children: Elizabeth, who married Robert Reed, of Dawn, and is now deceased; Nancy J., wife of Wiley Elliott; Minerva, deceased; Mary M., wife of S. J. Nellis, well known throughout this county; John E., married Margaret Flynn, and resides at Dawn; Catharine L., married Adam Blayney, of West Virginia; Susanna, deceased; Abraham, married Elizabeth Baker, and lives in the county; Harriet V., is now Mrs. Albert Snyder, of Kansas. In 1852 Mr. Brown's marriage to Mrs. Mary Watson was consummated, she having been a native of the Keystone State, and by this union there were two children: William W., who married Nellie Lewis, now living in Monroe township, this county, and Amy, the wife of John Glick, was killed in the cyclone of 1883. Two of Mr. Brown's sons were in the Union army during the war, John E. and Abraham. Mr. B. has followed farming and stock raising all his life until recently, when he has retired from active labor. He now makes his home at Dawn, living in the enjoyment of his extensive acquaintance and the love and esteem which is universally accorded him. Since the war he has been a Republican, though formerly a Whig. His Union proclivities during that struggle frequently led to insults and narrow escapes from bodily injury, and on one occasion he was captured by guerrilla and all but killed. All his life he has been a zealous laborer for the church, and for years he has been prominently identified with the Presbyterian denomination. On celebrating his seventieth birthday recently four generations were present, who presented him with a pair of gold spectacles, and at his death they are to go to the next oldest relative, and so on for generations.

HENRY BUSHNELL

(Merchant, Dawn)

As a man of business Mr. Bushnell's name and fame is co-extensive with Livingston county and the surrounding country. Every step of his financial and commercial career has been illustrated by acts of liberality and great practical advantage. With each vital interest of his people and his section he has been closely identified, and in every step taken through his energy towards a higher development this county has never had a safer counselor or more devoted friend. Perhaps he has only done his duty in this, and only acted as a sensible business man would; but it is much to do one's duty these days, and it is a great deal to do it unfalteringly and ungrudgingly. And Mr. Bushnell seems to be content so only his adopted county prosper. He was born in Otsego county, N. Y., April 29, 1842, the son of Horace C. Bushnell, also of the same county, and of French-Hugenot descent. His ancestors came to Salem (now Boston), Mass., in 1630. Pierre Boushenelle, as the name was originally spelled, after coming to this country, married a daughter of one of the passengers of the Mayflower, in 1632. He had 13 children, and all of the name now in America are considered his descendants. The different members of the family lived for generations in the New England States, many of them taking part in the Revolutionary and early Indian Wars. The second generation from Pierre Boushnelle began to spell the name as it now stands, Bushnell. Noah Bushnell, Henry's great-grandfather, was a captain in the Continental army; after the war one of his sons, Benjamin, moved to Vermont, but a few years later, in the early part of the present century, located in Otsego county, N. Y., where he improved a farm, his wife and himself dying there and leaving four daughters and a son. The latter was Horace C. Bushnell, Henry's father. He (Horace) was reared as a farmer, received an academic education and also learned the carpenter's trade. In 1837 Miss Lora A. Joslyn, who was born in Otsego county, N. Y., in 1818, became his wife, and they had three sons and two daughters: Lucins T., Henry, Mary J., Frank E. and Ella A. The parents still survive and remain in the county which has always been their home. The father is an architect and also runs a sash and blind factory and circular mill and lumber yard. He and his estimable wife appreciated the benefit of good educational opportunities and saw to it that their children enjoyed the same advantages. Henry Bushnell passed his youth in the village of Gilbertsville, Otsego county, assisting in his father's mill and upon the farm, attended an academy for some tinge and in the winter of 1860 - 61 taught school; he was preparing himself for college when the threatening war cloud burst in all its fury and subsequently, in August, 1861, he enlisted as private in Co. E, 2d New York artillery, though the regiment for the most part did duty as infantry. For meritorious services on the field of battle he was promoted to the captaincy of Co. C, having taken part in the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court-House, second Bull Run, North Ann, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Deep Bottom and many of less importance. On account of ill health Capt. Bushnell was compelled to resign his commission December 2, 1864, and he then returned home, after having served for over three years. In the spring of 1866 he came to Livingston county, Mo., and for two years farmed, taught school and worked at the carpenter's trade. In March, 1868, he became located at Dawn and in partnership with G. H. Clark embarked in general merchandising; since 1869 he has been alone in this business and by excellent business ability and foresight he has built up one of the largest and most prosperous trades in the county. His stock annually averages from $12,000 to $18,000, and he occupies a commodious two-story brick building, built in 1875. Besides hie mercantile interests Mr. B. has dealt to some extent in real estate and now he owns 780 acres, his own home being one of the finest hereabouts. In connection with Mr. Joseph Heslop he has also been engaged in buying and shipping stock for many years, probably as extensively as any person in the county. His public-spiritedness, as intimated, is shown by his contributions to everything that has a tendency to promote the interests of Livingston county or enlist its support. His business success has been something remarkable, and the confidence the people have in him in all respects is rarely equaled at the present day. Republican in politics, he has held numerous local positions. He belongs to the Commandery of the Masonic Order, and is also a member of the G. A. R. and A. O. U. W. Mr. Bushnell was married March 25, 1869, to Minnie Mellon, daughter of Henry S. Mellon, one of the pioneer settlers of Livingston county. She died January 22, 1870, leaving one child: Lora A. Mr. B. took for his second wife, November 9, 1871, Miss Anna M. Bridenthall, originally from West-moreland county, Pa. Six children have blessed this union: Frank E., Bertie I., Henry R., Horace E., Claude L, and Blanche L.

JAMES N. BYRD

(Post-office, Dawn)

This honored old citizen is one of the oldest and best known settlers of Blue Mound township, his home having been upon the farm which he now occupies since 1857. Born in Greenbrier county, Va., February 26, 1820, he is now little past the age of 66 years. His grand-father was an Englishman by birth, but when a child his father came to America and located in the Old Dominion; in childhood he and a sister were captured by Indians and held as captives for several years, and in after life Mr. Byrd ( whose name was John) retained many of the habits and characteristics of the aborigines. He was married in Virginia and reared a large family, among whom was John, the father of James N. Grandfather Byrd lived to the advanced age of 96 years. John and Rebecca (White) Byrd, the parents of the subject of this sketch, were both Virginians by birth and always made their home there, bringing up a family of 10 children, who have become useful and esteemed members of society in the different localities where they have resided. Their parents were in every way good and industrious people. James N. was brought up on his father's farm, receiving but a limited education, and for three years he served an apprenticeship at the blacksmith's trade, which he followed exclusively while in Virginia. In 1857 he came to this county, entered 820 acres of land where he now lives, and began its improvement, which by hard work and good management has become a superior farm. To some extent he has worked at his trade in connection with farming, though occupied principally in agricultural pursuits and the raising of stock. At this time he has 400 acres of land highly cultivated, and in its conduct is to be seen the superior management of a person thoroughly informed in his calling. Mr. Byrd was married August 29, 1844, to Miss Jane R. Myles, daughter of a well known resident of Greenbrier county, Va., John Myles, where she was born June 15, 1818. Seven children blessed this union: Virginia., John M., Mary A., Orlenah, Paul, Robetty and Mark. Mrs. Byrd died May 9, 1879, and Mr. B. married its. Eliza J. Steel, February 26, 1879. Her maiden name was Hannah, and she was born in the same county as himself November 1, 1819, becoming the wife of William Steel in 1853. They lived in Cedar county, Ia., some years, and then went to Illinois, and in 1870 came to this county, where Mr. S. died February 18, 1877. Mr. Byrd has been a life-long Democrat. During the war he maintained a perfectly neutral position, though doing much to prevent lawlessness at home. indeed he has ever been a staunch defender of the rights of man in all ways, and has thus shown himself to be a useful and progressive citizen. Few men in the county are better known or more universally esteemed than "Uncle Jimmy Byrd," as he is respectfully called.

CAPT. JOHN COLLAR

(Farmer and Insurance Agent, Post-office, Dawn)

To undertake to introduce to our readers the subject of this sketch would be something entirely unnecessary, for his extensive acquaintance and long connection with the affairs of this vicinity have rendered him well and popularly known. Born in Steuben county, N. Y., August 26, 1828, he was the son of Calvin Collar, whose birth occurred in the Bay State in 1784, and who after reaching manhood married Miss Eunice Boss in 1815. She was born in Rhode Island in 1792. Both families were of English extraction and early colonial settlers in New England. Calvin Collar moved to Steuben county, N. Y., in 1815, there residing until 1835, when, with his family, he located near Ypsilanti, Washtenaw county, Mich. Here he followed farming until a short time before his death when he settled in the city. He was a soldier in the War of 1812; politically an old line Whig, he held decided views regarding right and wrong. John was the youngest child of 6 sons and one daughter born to his parents. He was brought up on the home farm, attended the common schools and in 1846 commenced teaching, an occupation he continued until 1853. Then he embarked in agricultural pursuits in Michigan, disposed of his interests there in 1856 and came to this county, where he has since continued to reside, having been for the most part engaged in farming and stock raising. April 10, 1853, Mr. Collar was married to Miss Mirenda Kittredge, who was born in Onondaga county, N. Y., June 23, 1827, and from this union two children were born, Katie and John C., each of whom died when young. Mr. C. and his worthy wife have, however, reared several foster children. Since coming here he has lived near the southern line of the county in this township. During the late war he was a strong defender of his country, serving in the home guards from June, 1861, to July, 1862, and from that time to November, 1863, he was a member of the 33d E. M. M. as captain and quartermaster. From January 1, 1864, he served as captain of Co. H, 12th Missouri-volunteer cavalry, up to April 9, 1866, the last year of his service being occupied on the frontier against the Indians; also for some time he served under "Pap " Thomas in the Army of the Cumberland. Upon being discharged from the army Capt. Collar returned home and resumed farming and the stock industry. He is now also interested in insurance matters and represents in an able and profitable manner the Continental Insurance Co., of New York, and the National Temperance Relief Union, of St. Joseph, Mo. His farm of 160 acres is well improved. In politics he labors for the welfare of the Republican party. He is an earnest advocate of temperance, is a substantial member of the G. A. R., and in fact is found among the foremost in any reliable, up-lifting movement.

EDWARD DORNEY

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Dawn)

Mr. Dorney is another example of what energy, industry used perseverance, when intelligently applied, have accomplished for those of foreign birth who have seen fit to locate within the limits of this country. Originally from County Tipperary, Ireland, he was born in May, 1830, the son of William and Catherine (O'Brien) Dorney, also of Irish nativity, the former of County Tipperary, and the latter from Waterford county. They were a hard-working agricultural people and both died in the country of their birth. Edward, the third child in the family of three sons and two daughters, like most Irish boys of the day, had but limited educational advantages. All his brothers and sisters came to the United States at different times and here married and became the heads of families. Up to the age of 15 he lived at his old home and then for about five years worked upon his cousin's farm, receiving for his services the munificent amount of $1.20 per month. In 1850 he emigrated to this country, spent the winter at New Orleans and in the next spring located in Butler county, O., where he remained for seven years occupied in tilling the soil. For about the same length of time he rented land and in 1864 came to this county and purchased a farm of 163 acres, in the forks of Grand river; some four years later he left that place and settled upon a portion of the tract which he now owns in this township, to which additions have since been made until his present estate embraces 230 acres, well improved. While living in Butler county, O., Mr. Dorney was married to Miss Ellen Torney, a native of County Waterford, Ireland. Eight children have been born to them: William, John, Thomas, Joannah, Michael K., Morris, Dennis and Ellen. Mr. D. is meeting with success in his farming and stock raising interests. He is connected with the Catholic Church, and politically is a Democrat.

WYLEY ELLIOTT

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Dawn).

In all ages of the world industry, perseverance and energy where intelligently applied, have achieved a result which only could have been gained by having one object in view and in improving every opportunity to ultimately attain to that object. Mr. E. is an example of what can be accomplished when the spirit of determination is exercised in connection with the every-day affairs of life. He was born in Morrow county, O., May 2, 1838, the son of Robert and Eliza Elliott, nee Ward, who were married in Licking county, O., the latter having been a native of Washington county, Pa. The father was of Irish ancestry and his parents emigrated to the United States about the beginning of the present century, settling permanently in Ohio, where they followed farming and reared a large family. In 1834 Robert Elliott moved to Morrow county and improved a farm upon which he lived until his death in 1852, a wife and eight children surviving him. The mother still lives on the old homestead in Ohio, which she has occupied for over 50 years. Wyley, the third child in the family, was but 14 years of age when his father died, and he and an older brother then farmed the home place and helped to rear the family, thus being denied very favorable opportunities for acquiring an education. While still a boy, in connection with his brother, he entered a large tract of land in Iowa, subsequently disposing of this at quite an advance, and he then purchased 100 acres near his old home in Ohio, though remaining on the old homestead until about 24 years old. In 1862 he came to this county and on October 17, of that year, was married to Miss Nancy J. Brown, daughter of Abraham Brown, her birth having occurred in Washington county, Pa., August 11, 1838. Returning to Morrow county, O., Mr. Elliott lived there until the spring of 1864, when he settled permanently upon his present location. Here his wife died October 30, 1881, leaving the following family: Annie M., Franklin B., Clemence, Vincent and Cora E. Mr. E. married again, September 19, 1882, Miss Margaret Trussel, daughter of Thomas M. and Margaret (McCammon) Trussel, both Virginians by birth, who removed to Pennsylvania after their marriage, thence to Morrow county, O., and from there to Livingston county in 1860; they now reside in Carroll county, Mo. Mrs. Elliott was born in Washington county, Pa., May 18, 1850. Mr. E.'s career in life has been of hard, earnest toil, to a position of influence and substantial worth. His farming and stock raising operations have resulted most satisfactorily, and he now owns 553 acres of well improved land. For 13 years past he has fed from one to five car loads of stock annually, his good judgment and discerning mind rendering him and excellent stock man. His standing and worth in this community are highly recognized by a host of acquaintances. Mr. Elliott is a member of the Presbyterian Church; his political tendencies are Democratic. All measures of morality, education, temperance and others of a like nature find in him a strong advocate.

EDWARD A. EVANS

(Farmer and Stock-raiser)

Livingston county has long had the reputation of being one of the best stock-raising counties in the State. Not only do the farmers here give their principal attention to this industry, but they are generally men of enterprise and information, who take pride in agricultural affairs also, and certainly this has a beneficial result, for it is a source of profit to the farmers themselves. Prominent among those who have done their full share in advancing every interest of the county is Mr. Evans, who came here in 1870, and his endeavors towards promoting this end have been recognized by a host of acquaintances, among whom he stands high as a man and citizen. He was born in Montgomeryshire, North Wales, June 15, 1833, the son of Edward and Ann (Jones) Evans, both of the same country. Always devoted to farming, they brought their three sons and two daughters up as farmers. With the exception of one sister, Margaret, and Edward, all live in Wales. Margaret married William L. Evans and died in Franklin county, O. Edward A. early became accustomed to hard work, but had no opportunity of attending school. In 1854 he determined to come to the United States, and with the earnings which he had so carefully saved he landed at New York and went immediately to Columbus, O., working on a farm for some time and then finding employment on the farm at the Lunatic Asylum. For six years he labored faithfully, economized wherever he could and by taking up the common studies at odd times and by close application he obtained no inferior knowledge of the elementary branches. Upon leaving the asylum his reputation was such as to secure him a position as a police officer in Columbus, which he retained four years. May 12, 1865, Mr. Evans was married to Miss Elizabeth M. Jones, also originally from North Wales, born March 22, 1837. In 1866 they located upon a farm in Franklin county, O., but in 1870 settled on their present place, which has since been added to until it embraces 500 acres. Besides this Mr. Evans owns city property in Dawn. His farm is one of the best in the township and is well improved and stocked. All that he now has he can appreciate, for it has been gained by his individual efforts, aided by those of his worthy wife. A Republican in politics he is a warm supporter of that party. Mr. Evans is a man of unusual energy and vitality, and though he lost his right arm while helping a neighbor thresh, he still performs as much labor as many men with two arms. He and his wife have the following children: Robert R., born April 12, 1867; William A., born September 18, 1868, died April 4, 1873; Annie, born October 22, 1869; Winifred, born January 8, 1871, all in Franklin county, O., and Edward A., born August 4, 1873; Everett Hays, born October 18, 1874; John W., born August 8, 1876, died February 14, 1877; Catherine, born December 22, 1877, and Margaret, born October 14, 1879, these latter in Livingston county.

THOMAS GRIFFITHS

(Dealer in General Merchandise, Dawn)

In January, 1885, there died in this county two of the best known and oldest of the Welsh residents here, William and Winifred (Edwards) Griffiths, the parents of the subject of this sketch. The death of the former occurred on the 25th inst., and that of his wife six days later. She was a native of North Wales, and was twice married, bearing her first husband, Edward Jones, two children, John W. and Richard E. Mr. and Mrs. Jones emigrated to the United States in 1840, and located in Pennsylvania, where he died, and where his widow subsequently married Mr. Griffiths, originally from South Wales. All of the family were of South Wales, and largely an agricultural people. William Griffiths when quite young entered the mines in the country of his birth, in which he remained until 1842, then coming to America and making his home in Danville, Pa. He soon commenced work in the iron ore mines, and in 1858 accompanied by his family he moved to Rock Island county, Ill., there following coal mining up to 1868. At that date he became settled in this county and township, and after purchasing 100 acres of land gave his attention to its improvement, engaging also in stock-raising. He and his wife were members of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church, in which he held the position of deacon for many years. Of great personal popularity their loss was keenly felt in this community. Thomas, their only child, was born in Montour county, Pa., May 17, 1850, as he grew up passing his time in the village of Danville, Pa., and in Coal Valley, Ill. Not only was he favored with a common school education, but attended the graded schools, and an academy at the last mentioned place. He was also employed in the mines some time, and when his parents came to Livingston county, Mo., he came with them and farmed until 1882, when he embarked in merchandising at Dawn. This business has since received his attention, and in it he has built up a reputation that goes far towards making him successful. He has officiated in a number of official positions, was township clerk four years, and is now tax collector of Blue Mound township. His stock of goods carried are selected with a view to the wants of his customers. Politically he is a Republican; and he belongs to the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church. Mr. Griffiths was married October 16, 1883, to Miss Sarah Reese, who, when a child, left South Wales, the country of her birth, and came to America. They have one child, Clara.

JOSEPH HESLOP

(Stock Dealer, Dawn)

Since his connection with the stock business Mr. Heslop has become so well known to the people of Livingston county, both socially and as a business man, that a sketch of his life in this work is rendered almost necessary. His position in matters relating to stock is conceded to be among the foremost in this portion of the State, and his judgment regarding it is often sought after and always relied upon without reserve. His birth occurred in Otsego county, N. Y., February 5, 1842, the son of John and Parmelia Heslop, nee Wallon, the former a native of Leeds, England, and the latter of Otsego county, N. Y. When a young man John Heslop came to the United States, located in Otsego county, of the Empire State, there married and remained until his death in 1881; his wife preceded him to the grave in 1863. In their family were six children, five of whom are now living. During life Mr. H. was engaged in tilling the soil, and therefore it was only natural that young Joseph, in growing up, should have acquired a knowledge of this calling. He supplemented the course in the common schools, with which he was favored, by an attendance at an academy some two years, and in the fall of 1862 he enlisted in Co. G, 152d New York volunteer infantry, being mustered out at Munson Hill, Va., in July, 1865, after having seen considerable active and severe service. He was in the engagements of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court-house, Coal Harbor, Petersburg, and those in and around Richmond under Grant, and, in fact, participated in the principal engagements in which the second corps took part. While on picket duty before Ft. Hull, near Petersburg, he was severely wounded in the temple. Receiving his discharge, Mr. Heslop returned home, and in the spring of 1866 came West in company with Henry Bushnell and Edward Musson, locating in Monroe township of this county upon a farm, and keeping " batch " for some time. After farming about two years he began trading in stock, and has since continued this business, the greater portion of the time in connection with Mr. Bushnell. They have shipped and handled as much stock as any person in the county, and, as intimated before, Mr. H. is as well posted and thoroughly informed as need be. The county is indeed indebted to him for his interest in this department of business, and for what he has done to promote it in others. He was married January 7, 1880, to Miss Ida Bridenthrall, who was born in McKeensport, Pa., February 2, 18__. Mr. Heslop is a member of the A. O. U. W. and G. A. R. His political preferences are with the Republican party.

WILLIAM JONES (Deceased)

(Late of Blue Mound Township)

Nature seemed to have intended Mr. Jones for a long and more than ordinarily useful life. But, alas, for human hopes and expectations. Just as the meridian of life was reached his career was closed forever by death. He was born in Carmarthenshire, South Wales, March 20, 1820, grew up upon a farm and received a good education. When quite a young man he embarked in mercantile pursuits at Merthyr Tydvil, developing at once a peculiar fitness for that calling, and his partner, a Mr. James, being a good business man, they built up a large trade and accumulated a good fortune. Their establishment was known as the "Cloth Hall" and was one of the largest in South Wales. A few miles from the city they also had a grocery. Mr. Jones' health became impaired in his native country and selling out his business he speculated some time in mining property, but not to very good advantage. In 1850 he married at Newport, Wales, Miss Esther Williams, who was born in Breconshire, that country, December 25, 1830. In 1861, emigrating to the United States, they located in Cattaraugus county, N. Y., following farming and dairying and making it their home until 1868, save for one year passed in Wales. At that time they came to this county and purchased 350 acres of land unimproved in Blue Mound Township. Of great energy and much ability he was not long in securing a comfortable home in this new location. Here Mr. Jones died May 31, 1869, leaving besides his wife six small children to mourn his loss: Mary, Elizabeth J., William A., David G., Dollie and Albert A. In every way he was a most worthy man, a kind father and indulgent husband. Since his death the family have remained together, greatly improving the farm and adding to it until it embraces over 600 acres at the present time. This is well improved and to the united efforts of each member of the family is due this desirable change. The brothers have exercised good judgment in the selection of stock and a number of registered short-horn cattle, full-blooded Poland-China hogs and a good grade of sheep is found here, establishing without doubt a substantial reputation for these gentlemen. They are indeed useful members of society, progressive in all movements. Politically they are liberal in their views.

LEWIS D. JONES

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 16, Post-office, Dawn).

This worthy representative agriculturist of Blue Mound township owes his nativity to Cardiganshire, South Wales, where he was born July 12, 1830, the youngest child of six sons and one daughter born to Thomas and Sarah (Lewis) Jones, also of that country, in which they had been reared and married. Mrs. Jones died there in 1830, and afterwards Mr. J. married Mrs. Anna Lewis. In about 1838 he and his wife and some of the children emigrated to Canada, soon after going to New York, from whence in 1840 they removed to Portage county, O. This continued to be their home during the remainder of their lives. The father was a stock dealer in the old country and after settling in the United States gave his attention to farming, in which he met with substantial evidences of success. Lewis D. Jones when a child was taken by an uncle to raise, Rev. John Jones, a Congregational minister and eminent Christian man, with whom he stayed until 12 years old. He obtained a common school education, worked about a year in the coal and iron mines, and in 1844 journeyed across the ocean to this country and to his father's in Portage county, O., where he farmed a year. Then he entered the coal mines in Maboning county, from which, some time after, he became located at Baltimore, Md. For two years he was employed in a copper smelting establishment, for two years mined in the copper mines at Eagle Harbor, in the Lake Superior country, and upon leaving there he became engaged in the iron works at Portsmouth, O. In 1853 Mr. Jones was married to Miss Margaret E. Evans, who was born in South Wales, October 21, 1834, her parents becoming residents of Jackson county, O., about 1842. In the fall of 1854 Mr. Jones and wife went to Iowa, passed the winter at Burlington, then purchased a farm in Monroe county and lived upon it (with the exception of two years) until coming to Livingston county, Mo., in the spring of 1867. This has since been their home and here he has been identified with the agricultural affairs of the community. He owns 240 acres of land in this township, improved in an excellent manner, besides which he has in his possession 960 acres in Cheyenne and Sherman counties, Neb. Valuable town property in Plate Center, Neb., is also his. Mr. Jones is certainly an example as a self-made man, for he has come up in life from a poor, uneducated Welsh boy to a position of esteem and respect and substantial prominence. His competence is a comfortable one and he is recognized as a leader in stock matters in the county. His family consistent of Evan L., Sarah A., Lewis E., Annie C., Mary J., Thomas A., David G., Elizabeth, William S., Stephen F., Margaret E., Harriet L., Rosa A. and Sadie. Mr. and Mrs. Jones are members of the Calvinistic Methodist Church. In his political affiliations he is a stanch Republican. In educational and all other worthy movements he takes great interest.

WILLIAM R. JONES

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 29, Post-office, Dawn).

Upon first coming to Livingston county, Mo., in 1868, Mr. Jones purchased an 80-acre tract of land from the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Company, and to this he added from time to time until at this date he owns 330 acres well improved. He has been successful because he has labored hard and given close attention to the duties of his farm, and upon his place he raises good graded stock. Mr. Jones came originally from Meirionthshire, North Wales, his birth having occurred October 8, 1835. His parents, Robert and Winifred Jones, nee Jones, were both reared and married in that country, there residing until 1859, when they emigrated to America with seven daughters, locating at Newark, O. Up to 1870 they made their home in that vicinity, then coming to this county, where the mother died February 23, 1885. The father still survives in this county, and has followed farming since coming here. He and his wife were members of the Congregational Church (as he now is), and in every way respected people. William R., the only son now living of eight girls and two boys in his parents' family, was not favored with very good opportunities for attending school in Wales; there he worked upon a farm until deciding to remove to America, the date of his landing at New York being July 4, 1856. For a few months he remained in Oneida county, N. Y., then went to Newark, O., and after laboring upon a farm for some time he rented land on his own account, continuing to be thus occupied until his settlement in this county. April 13, 1860, Miss Elizabeth S. Griffiths became the wife of Mr. Jones, she having been born in Cardiganshire, South Wales, October 19, 1833. In 1842 her parents, William and Charlotte (Jones) Griffiths, left their native country and located at Newark, O. Mr. and Mrs. Jones have seven children: Charlotte E., Robert W., Catharine W., Henry T., Gomer G., Martha H. and Annie E. Politically, Mr. J. votes the Republican ticket; in religious preferences he is a Congregationalist. He is everywhere recognized as a progressive man and a warm friend of education.

JAMES KINLEY

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Chillicothe).

If industry, hard work and ceaseless activity, united with a strong and determined perseverance, can accomplish anything in this world, then Mr. Kinley is bound to succeed; for in him are to be found all the characteristics mentioned, and, indeed, he is deserving of more than ordinary credit for his career thus far in life. His birth occurred in the City of Pittsburgh, Pa., March 11, 1842. His father, James Kinley, was of Irish descent, but a native of England; his mother, originally from Wales, was reared near London, Eng., where she met and afterwards married Mr. Kinley. He was a cooper by trade, and up to 1840 he gave his attention to that calling in the country of his birth, then coming to the United States and settling at Pittsburgh, where he resumed his adopted occupation. Three children were born to himself and wife: Mary, who died when a child; John, now a blacksmith in the Cherokee Nation, and James, the youngest of the family. In 1843 the senior Kinley died and a few years following the mother with her children moved to Jackson county, O., where she was married in 1847 to John T. Davis. By this union there were five children, three of whom are now living. Mr. and Mrs. Davis are deceased. The subject of this sketch in his youth was unfortunately deprived of any very- favorable opportunities for obtaining an education, but those he did enjoy were thoroughly improved. When 16 years at age he began little for himself as a farm laborer, continuing to work on different places until 1861, when he took a position as post teamster, in the employ of the govermnent, an occupation in which he was engaged until 1864. Then he enlisted in Co. D, 179th Ohio volunteer infantry, and served until the war closed. During 1865 and a portion of 1866 he passed considerable time in working about a farm in Scioto county, O., and in 1867 he cast his fortunes with Livingston county, Mo., and here he has since remained, one of the esteemed residents of the community. His first purchase of land included 90 acres, which he secured from the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad, an unimproved tract, to the development and cultivation of which he immediately turned his attention. At this time he has 224 acres, improved in a manner deserving of especial mention. Upon the place is to be found a good grade of stock of all kinds, and he is recognized by the agriculturists of the county as one who knows thoroughly his calling in all of its details. In politics he is Republican. January 16, 1868, Mr. Kinley was married to Miss Mary M. Bowen, originally from Greenbriar county, Va. Mr. K. is a member of Chillicothe Lodge No. 89, A. F. and A. M.

BENJAMIN F. KNOX

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Dawn.)

In the early settlement of Livingston county and to the pioneers of this vicinity, the parents of the subject of this sketch, Robert and Jemima Knox, nee Shields, were well and favorably known, and their son Benjamin shares in the esteem which was given them. They became located in Eastern Indiana at an early days lived there until 1844 and they settled in this county and township, here spending the remainder of their lives. Twelve children were in their family; they were recognized as industrious, kind-hearted people, and bore their part of the hardships and privations of pioneer life without flinching, and to them, among others, is due the credit for opening the way to civilization hereabouts. Benjamin F. Knox was born December 26, 1831, in Rush county, Ind., was reared to a farm experience and after coming to Missouri attended the common schools of this township. When about 22 years of age, in August, 1853, he was united in marriage with Miss Eliza E. Caskey, whose birth occurred in Carroll county, Mo., September 14, 1839; she died in August, 1873, leaving five children: Alfred B., James B., Henry N., Robert L. and Cora E. Mr. Knox's second marriage was consummated November 12, 1873, when Miss Ellen James became his wife. She was born in Iowa county, Wis., September 3, 1855. They have one child, John F. In 1854 Mr. K. moved to his present location, on which he has since resided, actively engaged in the pursuits of farming and stock raising. He owns 142 acres of cultivated land, is raising a good grade of stock, and in all his operations is proving himself in advanced, practical agriculturist. Politically he is a Democrat. He takes great interest in educational matters and in all things tending to the improvement of the county's interests. In every way he is a good and useful citizen.

WILLIAM LEWIS

(Farmer and Stock-raiser)

On the 28th of February, 1831, in the city of Bath, England, there was born to George and Catherine Lewis, a son, the subject of this sketch, the youngest of two boys and three girls. The father was a native of England and the mother of Scotland, their marriage having occurred at Bath. George Lewis was for many years in the employ of a wealthy family of brewer's in his native city. Both he and his wife died in England, and all the children are now living there save William. When 11 years old he stopped school and commenced working on a farm and at the age of 16 entered into the raising of strawberries for market, renting three acres of land and paying $50 rent an acre per annum. Some four years thus passed in hard work together with strict economy resulted in his accumulating some money, and after this he became bailiff to the noted pen manufacturer, Jos. Gillette,, in whose employ he remained for about 15 years. February 1, 1852, he was united in marriage with Ellen Jacobs, who was born in County Sommerset, England. In 1868 Mr. Lewis came to America, landing at Portland, Ore., but his dissatisfaction with that country prevented him from carrying out his original intention of settling in Canada, so he looked about for a desirable location in the United States. Finally he was attracted to Livingston county, Mo., landed here with about $500 in money and secured of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad 40 acres of land. He went to work with a will, managing his place to advantage, making from time to time surly improvements as he could afford, and at this time he is a large property owner, having 1,020 acres, well improved and well adapted for stock purposes. In the case of Mr. Lewis the oft abused phrase "a self-made man" seems to have a true illustration, for his rise in life has been accomplished through his individual efforts, and by a constant, earnest industry. In agricultural and stock matters he is well posted and practically informed and his example is one worthy of imitation. He is liberal in his political views and recognized as an influential citizen of this community. Mr. and Mrs. Lewis have eight children: William, Ellen A., Kate, Henry H., Frederick L., Emily, Elizabeth F. and Lucy.

JOSEPH A. LEWIS

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 16, Post-office, Dawn).

Among others of foreign birth in this county deserving of special prominence is Mr. Joseph A. Lewis, who first saw the light in 1836 in Pembrokeshire, South Wales. His father, Thomas Lewis, of South Wales, was brought up there and subsequently married Miss Mary Roderick, of the same country, and they made their home in that locality until coming across the water to the United States in the fall of 1848, with their five children, three of whom were sons. After spending the winter at St. Louis, as soon as navigation was opened they went up the river to Burlington, Ia., and located in Des Moines county, Yellow Springs township, improving a farm and residing upon it until coming with the entire family, save one daughter, to this township and county, in the fall of 1865. The parents lived on a farm until their death, the father dying September 30, 1884; the mother preceded him several years, departing this life March 23, 1877. They were both consistent members of the Baptist church and on account of being the first Welsh family to settle near Dawn became well known and as highly esteemed. The worthy family of children which they left have become prominent in various affairs in life. Joseph during the late war was in the supply service and was a stanch Union man. He came to Livingston county with his parents in 1865 but in 1869 returned to Louisa county, Ia., where, on August 5, he was united in marriage with Miss Catharine Tudor, of that county, born April 21, 1850, and the daughter of David and Mary Tudor, nee Owens, who were among the first settlers of Louisa county. Since his permanent settlement here Mr. Lewis has devoted his attention to farming and stock raising, a calling in which he has been thoroughly versed from his very youth. For a number of years he was land agent for the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad, and in this capacity did much to induce the settlement of this county. In other ways he has helped to develop and push forward its interests. He has 160 acres of well improved land, besides some timber, raising a good grade of stock of all kinds, and in his operations he is meeting with encouraging success. He and his wife have five children: David T., Mary E., Margaret A., John H. and an infant now deceased. He is a Republican in politics and in religious matters a member of the Baptist Church.

CHARLES K. MOSER

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Chillicothe)

The first farm which Mr. Moser purchased upon his arrival in this county in the fall of 1866 contained but 60 acres, but from time to time additions have been made to this original tract until his present estate embraces 275 acres. The homestead is well improved, and upon it are necessary and convenient buildings, and for stock purposes it is desirably fitted out. Practical and energetic in the management of his farm, he has been successful, and judging by the past, a brilliant future is before him. Mr. Moser came originally from Berks county, Pa., born December 17, 1830, one of 11 children in the family of his parents, William and Susan (Kuhns) Moser, also natives of the Keystone State, the former of Lehigh county and the latter from Northampton county. They were both of German ancestry and strongly imbued with the characteristics of that race of people, so far as energy and hard work goes. The father owned a grist and saw mill and also conducted a farm, having accumulated a considerable property at the time of his death. Charles K. was brought up to a farm experience and only attended school but a short time. Living at home until about 22 years of age, he then went to Medina county, O., where he worked on a farm for about a year, then going to Michigan. After railroading for some time he came to Fulton county, Ill., continued the same occupation there up to 1861, and finally brought up in Ohio from whence he drove a flock of sheep to Lehigh county, Pa. For six years he was a resident of that county, engaged in huckstering and conducting a country store, and after that, at the time stated, he came to this county. Mr. Moser was married in Lehigh county, Pa., July 4, 1863, to Miss Catherine H. Sterner, whose birth occurred there September 28, 1843. By this union there have been five children; Ida, Mary S., James W., Charles T. and Katie M. All are now living except the oldest. Mr. M. has been a Republican during life. He and his wife are both public-spirited citizens, useful members of society, and receive a cordial welcome wherever they go. Mrs. Moser's parents, Tilghman and Mary A. Sterner, nee Hoffman, were formerly from Lehigh county, Pa. She was a teacher before her marriage, and is a lady of refinement and true intellectual worth.

THOMAS PARIS

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Dawn).

As is well known Livingston county received a large immigration to its territory during the "fifties," at which time many settlers came in who have since made for themselves an honorable name in this community. Among others might be mentioned Thomas Paris, whose career is but another evidence of the possibilities young men have for advancement in the world, when supported by strong resolution to rise. Commencing life as a poor boy, and a farmer's boy at that, with scarcely any advantages for an education, be is now in possession of a comfortable competence, his estate embracing 265 acres well improved. He raises good stock of all kinds and keeps fully apace with the progress of his adopted calling in every particular. Mr. Paris owes his nativity to Monroe county, O., where he was born May 10, 1829, the son of Peter Paris, who was born in Paris, France. He was reared to manhood there and when about 18 years old became a sailor, and during the seven years thus occupied he visited many countries and acquired a knowledge of six or seven languages. In the latter part of the eighteenth century he came to this country and married in Pennsylvania Mary A. Hall, of that State, but of German ancestry. After the War of 1812 he located in Monroe county, O., and endured many hardships in making for himself and family a comfortable home. They both died and were buried in Monroe county. Of their 13 children, all but two are living and are engaged in agricultural pursuits, mostly in the Buckeye State. Thomas Paris was prevented from obtaining much of an education by duties about the home place. When 22 years of age, December 11, 1851, he was married to Miss Rebecca Watson, whose birth occurred September 11, 1835, in Guernsey county, O. The children born of this union were Henry, Mary A., Louisa R., John T., Jerome, Phebe J., Elmer E., Charley O., Benjamin F., George W. and William R. In 1852, Mr. Paris left Ohio and came to Champaign county, Ill., where he followed farming until coming to this county in 1854. His first purchase of 120 acres of land is now owned by George Hedrick and after a number of years Mr. P. bought his present place - one of the neat, comfortable homesteads of the county. During the war he was a strong Union man and for about three years he served in the State militia, the last years of the war being in the 44th Missouri volunteer infantry, and seeing much active service. Mr. Paris has always favored such things as he thought would build up and benefit the country and his fellow-man. He is progressive in his ideas and tendencies and a representative man in the community.

ROBERT L. PATRICK

(Physician and Surgeon).

The locality in which Dawn is situated is indeed fortunate in having among its citizens such a man as Robert L. Patrick is conceded to be, for his connection with the interests of the township and county in a quiet, but none the less effective, way has proven to be of much benefit and influence, and of no little importance. Of Missouri nativity, be was born in Saline county October 16, 1830, of the marriage of Samuel and Lucy Patrick, the latter formerly a Miss Thomas and a native of Scott county, Ky., while the former came originally from Franklin county, O. The Patricks were of English origin, and early settlers of the Keystone State, taking part in the early Indian wars and in the two wars with the Mother country. Robert Patrick, Robert L.'s grandfather, whose mother was a Pennsylvania lady, Miss McFarland, became a pioneer in Central Ohio, where he lived until taking up his residence in Saline county, Mo., about 1815, and from there some years later he went to Howard county, dying there at a ripe old age. He married a Miss Strong. Samuel Patrick followed his parents to this estate, and in Saline county was married, his wife's parents having been among the earliest settlers of the Missouri Valley. After leaving Saline county and going to Howard, from whence he came to this county, in 1847, he remained here the principal portion of his time. Of a good education and personally a favorite he was well known in this State. In an early day he made trips to the far West, trading with the Indians and Mexicans, and January 27, 1873, he died at Yreka, Cal., having gone there overland with ox teams, accompanied by his sons Robbert L. and Charles, in 1849. While there he traded in stock and was interested in merchandising. Mrs. Patrick is still a resident of this township. In the family of herself and husband were nine children. Robert L. divided his time in youth between working on the home farm and attending the common schools, and as before referred to, went with his father and brother to California in 1849, remaining there until 1864. He then returned to his Missouri home, but soon after took another trip to California, going across the plains by himself and driving or leading three pack mules the entire distance. While in that county he followed mining, merchandising and stock-raising with good success, and he also devoted some time to the study of medicine. In 1865 he settled permanently in Livingston county, farmed here a few years and in 1869 started a general store at Dawn. At this writing he is the proprietor of a good drug store at this place, which is meeting with excellent patronage. Since at Dawn he has practiced medicine to quite an extent, and though not a regular college graduate, he has become such a close student and so well read that many a man of far greater pretensions as a physician would be put to shame. He now attends to his drug trade and office practice. Mr. Patrick is a married man, Miss Lucy M. Smoot having become his wife February 3, 1876. her birth occurred in Lincoln county, Mo., July 30, 1855. They have four children: Louisa F., Lucy, Jessie and Robert M. Mr. P. is a member of the I. O. O. F. In both politics and religious matters he is liberal in his views.

BENJAMIN B. PECK

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 22, Post-office, Dawn).

On both his father's and mother's sides Mr. Peck is of Scotch origin. Moses Peck, his father, was born in Vermont, but about 1822 went to the territory of Michigan, where his father removed the year following with his family. They located in Oakland county and Moses Peck there married Miss Silence Bayley, daughter of Amassa Bayley, who was one of the first judges of Oakland county and among its pioneers. Moses Peck following his marriage kept a hotel at Pontiac, Mich., for many years, a calling for which he seemed to be well adapted. He was a man of decided opinions and convictions and well respected. Benjamin B. was born September 5, 1831, in Oakland county, Mich., and lived at home until 23 years of age, except for about two years passed with a surveying party in northern Michigan. He received an academic education and in 1853, owing to ill health, he went South as he also did in 1854, spending the winters there. After traveling around some time he came to this county, and in the summer of 1855, he pre-empted 160 acres, where he now resides, beginning at once its improvement. This has continued to be his home, and he has long since gained the reputation as being among the very foremost tillers of the soil and stock men in this portion of the county. He has been a leader in the use of new and useful labor-saving farm machinery, keeps his place under a high state of cultivation, has upon it good graded stock and feeds annually about four car loads of cattle. In his homestead are included 354 acres, while in the northern portion of the township he has 220 acres. He has occupied numerous positions of trust, and honor, and in short, is acknowledged to be a representative citizen of the community. December 1, 1856, Mr. Peck was married to Miss Annie Stone, born February 20, 1837, in Licking county, O. Her parents, Jonathan and Sarah (Fletcher) Stone, were Virginians by birth, but were reared and married in Ohio, some years after coming to this county and township, where the remainder of their lives was spent, the respect and esteem of all being bestowed upon them. In the fall of 1861 Mr. P. became a member of the enrolled militia, doing duty mostly in Livingston county, and he also served in the provisional militia over two years. He was reared a Democrat but during the war was a firm supporter of the Union, doing all in his power to help the Government, and keep a loyal sentiment at home. On the finance question his sympathies are with the Greenback party. In other things he is non-commiittal. In whatever he does he shows that his interests are the interests of the county and his fellow-man. Mr. and Mrs. Peck have six children: Lillie F., Manford E., Malcolm J., Carrie E., Rosa A, and Benjamin B. They take warm interest in educational matters, the children having been favored with superior advantages in this direction. Their social qualities are of a high order.

AARON T. PURCELL

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Dawn).

Aaron T. Purcell was born in Dearborn county, Ind., December 16, 1815. His paternal grandfather, Benjamin Purcell, was a Virginian by birth and was reared and married in Loudoun county, that State. During the Revolutionary War he lived in Tennessee and served against the Indians; shortly before the War of 1812 he removed to Dearborn county, Ind., and there died, leaving 10 children, of whom John Purcell, the father of the subject of this sketch, was one. He grew up in Tennessee and Indiana as a farmer's boy, did not enjoy much schooling, and finally married Miss Elizabeth Livingston, of Ohio. Her father, George Livingston, of Albemarle county, Va., was for seven years a soldier in the Revolutionary War, part of the time under Washington. John Purcell and wife had 11 children. After their marriage they lived in Ripley and Rush counties, Ind., until 1836, then moving to Pike county Ill., from whence five years later they came to Livingston county, Mo., settling near the center of Blue Mound township. They were kind-hearted, hospitable people, people respected by all who knew them. Aaron T., the eldest child in the family, endured many hardships in the settlement of the different localities where he resided, and only had five months' schooling in youth. He came with his parents to this county and remained at home until his marriage August 16, 1842, to Miss Elizabeth H. Carr who was born in Claiborne County, Tenn., January 12, 1822. Her parents, John and Nancy (Rogers) Carr, came from Tennessee to this county in the fall of 1841, lived many years in Blue Mound township and then moved to Ray county. Mr. and Mrs. Purcell have the following children: Permelia G., Susan R., John R., Benjamin F., George W., Amanda J., Joseph S., Lucinda, Clayton 0., Ann, Cyrene and Missouri E. Mr. Purcell and wife have been residents of this township, with the exception of three years spent in Iowa, since 1841, and are now among its oldest living citizens. Their homeplace is a neat and comfortable one. Mr. P. has always been either a Whig or Republican in polities. During the war he was a Union man, and his son, John R., was a Federal soldier and was captured at Franklin, Tenn., and afterwards starved to death at Andersonville. George W. Purcell, one of Mr. P.'s sons was born in this township January 15, 1849, and has always followed farming. He now owns 200 acres of well improved land and raises considerable stock. February 23, 1876, Miss Mary A. Paris became his wife, her birth having occurred in Livingston county, September 12, 1856. They hav'e five children: John W., Edley W., Marshall W., Lula C. and Ralph.

EDWARD F. SCHROEDER

(Merchant, Dawn)

This young citizen of foreign birth owes his nativity to Northeastern Prussia, where he was born January 2, 1860, his grandparents bringing him when a child to Canada, from whence in about a year they removed to Detroit, Mich. This continued to be their home some two years, and soon after they settled in this county, near Dawn. John Schroeder, the grandfather here referred to, was born in Prussia July 2, 1813, and grew to manhood upon a farm, enjoying good educational advantages; and while in his native country he held the position of magistrate. Of his 10 children he reared five, and three of these still survive in Prussia, and the other two reside in America. His wife was formerly Miss Charlotte Nichol, also of Prussian nativity. Since coming to this country they have resided upon a farm, and by hard work and economy have made for themselves a comfortable home, where they now reside, respected and enjoying the confidence of all. Edward F. Schroeder was reared as an agriculturist, the principal portion of his education being obtained in the schools of the village of Dawn. When young he did work on various farms, his earnings going to his grandfather until 19 years of age, and besides he farmed his grandfather's place in partnership. He also followed railroading some time, and visited considerable of the West. Returning home he subsequently embarked in farming on his own account, raising and trading in stock, etc., and earning money wherever he could honestly do so, until engaging in mercantile pursuits at Dawn. By his fair dealing mid popular manner he has built up a good business, which is increasing. Politically, Mr. S. is a Democrat.

HENRY M. SEIBERLING

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Chillicothe).

Henry M. Seiberling was born in Lehigh county, Pa., June 24, 1838, in which locality his parents were also born, Joshua and Catherine Seiberling, nee Moser. There they were reared and married, and both were of German extraction, their respective ancestors having settled in the Keystone State prior to the Revolutionary War. Three strong traits stood forth in their character - honesty, sobriety and industry. Joshua Seiberling was the most of his life engaged in general merchandising and hotel keeping, and as a business man he was most thorough. He was a magistrate for over twenty-five years. Eleven of the 12 children born to himself and wife reached maturity. The father still survives, a resident of Pennsylvania; the mother died September 13, 1883. The children now living reside in their native State, except Henry M. and a sister, in Cedar county, Ia. The former grew up from boyhood in the little village of Seiberlingsville, and during youth passed his time in assisting in his father's store, hotel and farm. His education was a common school one and when about twenty-one years of age he left home and spent a year in Summit county, O., working on a farm. Coming westward to Illinois, he clerked for a railroad contractor in McDonough county until August, 1861, when he enlisted in Co. H, 2d regiment Illinois volunteer cavalry, and subsequently he took part in the following engagements: Columbus, Island No. 10, Pittsburgh Landing, the Vicksburg campaign and the Red River expedition, helping to clear the rivers from Paducah, Ky., to New Orleans. Mr. S. saw considerable active service and performed every duty allotted to him as became a fearless and gallant soldier. In August, 1864, he was honorably discharged and then returned to Illinois, for some time thereafter traveling around. In New York City December 20, 1864, he was married to Miss Mary L. Edel, who was born in that city May 9, 1844, and they have had two children, Charles M. and Louisa C. In the spring of 1865 Mr. Seiberling with his wife came to Mexico, Mo., lived upon a fruit farm some two years and then located where they now reside, this well improved and stocked farm containing 180 acres. All his operations have been carried on according to the most advanced and progressive ideas and have resulted to his own good, and the benefit of those with whom he has come in contact. His political preferences are Democratic, though, he is not radical in his opinions. With his worthy wife he belongs to the M. E. Church, and they both support liberally any measure tending to benefit their adopted county. Mrs. S.'s parents, Joseph and Louisa (Rivinius) Edel, were both natives of Germany, but married in this country. They had 10 children; the father died in McDonough county, Ill., in 1860, after which the family returned to their old home in New York City.

LEVI E. TRACY, M. D.

(Physician and Surgeon, Dawn)

The father of Dr. Tracy, Joshua Tracy, was a native of Maryland, as were also his father and grandfather before him, and, of course, early colonial settlers of that State. Joshua's father moved to Belmont county, O., in an early day, and reared a family of 11 sons and one daughter. While there Joshua Tracy was married to Miss Sarah Moore, whose parents were also pioneers of that county, and after this event they remained in the Buckeye State until 1845, then going to a place near Brighton, Washington county, Ia. There their home continued to be until death, the family which they left consisting of seven sons and five daughters, who have done honor to the name they bear. Levi E., one of these sons, was born February 23, 1835, in Belmont county, O., and was but ten years old when the family moved to Iowa. There he attended, until 17 years of age, the schools of Brighton. This he supplemented with a two years' course at a select school in Mt. Pleasant, and after finishing his education thus far he went to Burlington and clerked in a dry goods store for three years. But a previously formed desire to follow the practice of medicine as his profession led him to commence its study, and after reading with Dr. Stone, of Washington, Ia., he attended two courses of lectures at Ann Arbor, Mich., graduating from that well known institution in 1864. Thus favored with such excellent preparatory training Dr. T. was enabled to enter at once upon a successful career, and almost immediately he was appointed assistant surgeon of the Cumberland Hospital at Nashville, Tenn., a position he held until the close of the war and his return to Iowa. In the fall of 1865 he came to this county, locating in Utica, and there followed his chosen calling for 20 years, coming thence to his present location at Dawn. His professional career from the first has been one of gratifying results; thoroughly fitted by study and experience for a superior physician and surgeon, he has built up a reputation for professional skill and ability that is not merely local, but extends over a wide range. In the community where he is best known he enjoys unlimited confidence and respect. Dr. Tracy has been twice married; first, in 1864, to Miss Harriet E. Stone, who was born in 1843 in Jeffersonville, Ind. She died in the spring of 1877, leaving four children: Nettie C., Hattie Belle, Ralph L. and Benjamin Stone. In the fall of 1878 the Doctor married Miss Emily M. Page, of Detroit, Mich. She was born February 23, 1851. The union has resulted in two children: Mary L. and Frank P. Since the war Dr. T. has been a stanch Republican, though formerly a Democrat. He belongs to the Episcopal Church, and is a member of both the Masonic and A. O. U. W. Orders. Though no political aspirant he always helps to have representative men in office.

HUGH TUDOR

(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 21, Township 56, Range 24, Post-Office, Dawn).

Perhaps it is not to be so much wondered at that Mr. Tudor is possessed of such progressive ideas and tendencies regarding the management and conduct of a farm when the fact becomes known that he is originally from a community of intelligent, progressive and enterprising agriculturists. Louisa county, Ia., is his native place and there he was born September 23, 1847, one of a family of four sons and five daughters born of the union of David and Mary (Owens) Tudor, both originally from North Wales. In that country they had been reared and married, following farming until emigrating to the United States in 1842, and after stopping at Cincinnati, Ohio, a short time (where Mr. Tudor had two brothers living) he located in Louisa county, Ia., entering 200 acres of land on Long creek, in Columbus City township. The next year he brought out his family. That portion of the country at that early day was extremely new and there were but two Welsh settlers in the county, where now can be found a large Welsh population. Mr. Tudor lived there many years, or until his death in September 30, 1867. His entire family were born in that county. He and his wife joined the Baptist Church of which he remained a worthy member and with which his wife is still connected, she being a resident of this township. As he grew up young Hugh became familiar with farming in all its details, but unfortunately obtained only a limited schooling. In 1864 he enlisted in Co. F, 25th Iowa volunteer infantry, under Capt. Allen, and served until the close of the war, participating in the battles in and about Atlanta, and seeing considerable active service. Upon his return home he embarked in agricultural pursuits and thus remained engaged until coming to this county in 1869, and in the fall of 1879 he purchased the farm on which he now resides, a place of good improvement. He has worked considerably at carpentering since his location here and now upon his farm is a custom mill run by wind power, nearly 2,000 bushels of grain having been ground here during the past year. He takes an interest in good stock of all kinds, and in every way keeps fully abreast with the times. Though not a large farmer in the full meaning of the term, he is a most practical one. Horticulture has been another occupation which he has not lost sight of, as his excellent orchard will prove. January 18, 1867, Mr. Tudor took for his wife Miss Elizabeth Atkins, whose birth occurred in North Wales January 16, 1848, her father, John, and mother, formerly Catharine Simon, emigrating to the United States to Iowa county, In. Mr. T. is a member of the Baptist Church and the G. A. R., and also belongs to the I. O. O. F. Politically he is a Republican.

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